Licchavi Lyceum


Licchavi Lyceum

Bihar GK

General Studies of Bihar

Ancient History Bihar

History of Ancient Bihar: Tracing the Footsteps of Empires

Step back in time, dear reader, as we embark on a journey to uncover the rich and storied history of ancient Bihar. This land, cradled by the Ganges and enriched by the sands of time, has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful empires, the nurturing of knowledge, and the shaping of India’s cultural tapestry.

Prehistoric Roots and Vedic Beginnings: Long before the ink of recorded history, Bihar’s roots run deep. In the prehistoric era, ancient humans left behind traces of their existence in the form of tools and artifacts. As the Vedic period dawned, Bihar became a vibrant center of learning and spirituality. The revered town of Vaishali found its place in the texts of the Rigveda, showcasing Bihar’s ancient significance.

The Mauryan Empire: Pillars of Power: The pages of ancient Bihar reveal the rise of the Mauryan Empire, a beacon of political and administrative brilliance. Under the guidance of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya and his successors, Bihar emerged as the heart of a vast realm stretching from present-day Afghanistan to Bengal. Pataliputra, the empire’s capital, stood as a testament to grandeur and governance.

Golden Age of Learning: Nalanda and Vikramshila: Ancient Bihar truly shone during the Gupta and Pala dynasties. It became a sanctuary for learning and knowledge, attracting scholars from all corners of the world. Nalanda University, a beacon of intellectual pursuits, became a melting pot of diverse ideas. The monastic university of Vikramshila further enriched Bihar’s cultural legacy.

Intricate Mosaic of Empires: The land of Bihar witnessed a colorful tapestry of empires, each leaving its mark. The Rashtrakutas, Mughals, and various regional rulers contributed to Bihar’s historical landscape. Art, architecture, and trade flourished, and the echoes of these empires can still be heard in the ancient ruins and artifacts scattered across the state.

Cultural Synthesis and Religious Flourish: Bihar’s history is entwined with the tapestry of religions. It was a melting pot where Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism thrived and shared their teachings. The sermons of Lord Buddha in Bodh Gaya and the intellectual debates in Nalanda shaped the spiritual fabric of the land.

Decline and Renaissance: The sands of time brought change, and ancient Bihar witnessed shifts in power dynamics. The decline of the Pala Empire marked a turning point, followed by periods of turmoil and invasions. However, the spirit of Bihar endured, and the land witnessed a renaissance during the Mughal era, with centers of art and culture emerging once again.

In Retrospect: Cherishing the Legacy: As we step out of the corridors of ancient Bihar, we carry with us the echoes of empires, the wisdom of scholars, and the stories of the past. The history of ancient Bihar is a testament to human resilience, creativity, and the unbreakable bond between land and its people. It’s a legacy that continues to inspire and shape the identity of modern Bihar.

Magadh Empire

The Magadh Empire holds a significant place in the annals of ancient Indian history. Flourishing in the fertile plains of present-day Bihar, India, during antiquity, the Magadh Empire’s prominence spanned several centuries. Its remarkable rise and enduring influence have left an indelible mark on the socio-political landscape of the subcontinent.

The empire’s beginnings trace back to the 6th century BCE, characterized by the emergence of powerful leaders such as Bimbisara and Ajatashatru. Their strategic prowess and astute diplomacy enabled Magadh to expand its territorial boundaries, encompassing vast regions and diverse cultures.

One of the Magadh Empire’s crowning achievements was the establishment of the renowned Nalanda University, a beacon of knowledge and learning during its zenith. Scholars from across the world flocked to Nalanda, contributing to the dissemination of knowledge across various disciplines, including philosophy, mathematics, medicine, and the arts.

Chandragupta Maurya, a visionary ruler, forged a formidable empire by unifying Magadh and neighboring territories. His dynasty, the Mauryan Dynasty, solidified Magadh’s influence and power, culminating in the renowned Ashoka the Great. Ashoka’s transformation from a conqueror to a proponent of non-violence and moral governance exemplifies the empire’s enduring legacy.

Magadh’s strategic location and agricultural abundance fueled its prosperity and strength. The empire’s capital, Pataliputra (modern-day Patna), served as a political and economic hub, showcasing advanced urban planning and administration.

The decline of the Magadh Empire was a culmination of various factors, including external invasions and internal strife. The empire’s dissolution marked the transition to subsequent empires, yet its cultural and intellectual contributions continued to resonate.

The Magadh Empire stands as a testament to the resilience, innovation, and cultural vibrancy of ancient India. Its legacy, encapsulated in monumental achievements and historical narratives, continues to inspire and captivate the imagination of generations, underscoring the enduring spirit of a glorious era.


Indica” is a historical work written by the ancient Greek historian and traveler Megasthenes. It is one of the earliest accounts of India and its people from an outsider’s perspective. Megasthenes was a diplomat and ambassador of the Seleucid Empire, and he resided in the court of the Indian Mauryan Emperor Chandragupta Maurya during the 4th century BCE.

The “Indica” is not a single, continuous text but rather a collection of fragments and quotes from later authors who referenced Megasthenes’ work. Unfortunately, the original text of “Indica” has been lost over time, and what remains are mainly secondary sources that have quoted or paraphrased Megasthenes’ observations.

Based on these fragments and references, “Indica” provided valuable insights into various aspects of ancient India, including its geography, society, culture, and governance. Some of the topics that “Indica” is believed to have covered include:

  1. Geography and Topography: Megasthenes described the Indian subcontinent’s geography, including the size of the land, its rivers, and its natural resources.
  2. Society and Culture: The work is thought to have provided information about the social structure, customs, and religious practices of ancient Indian societies. It touched on topics such as caste divisions, marriage customs, and religious rituals.
  3. Administration and Governance: “Indica” likely offered insights into the administrative structure of the Mauryan Empire, including details about the court, officials, and governance practices.
  4. Economy and Trade: The work might have discussed India’s economic activities, trade routes, and the wealth of the region.
  5. Fauna and Flora: “Indica” is believed to have mentioned India’s diverse wildlife, including descriptions of animals and plants.

It’s important to note that while “Indica” is a valuable source of information about ancient India, it should be approached with a critical perspective. Megasthenes was an outsider, and his observations might have been influenced by his own cultural background and biases. Additionally, the fragments and quotes that survive are often brief and may lack context.

Scholars and historians have extensively studied the fragments of “Indica” along with other ancient texts and archaeological evidence to reconstruct a more comprehensive understanding of ancient Indian history and culture.

Bihar after Mauryan Era

After the decline of the Mauryan Empire, Bihar, like many other regions of India, went through a series of historical and political changes. The Mauryan Empire collapsed around the 2nd century BCE, and Bihar became a part of various subsequent dynasties and empires. Here is an overview of Bihar’s history after the Mauryan era:
  1. Shunga and Kanva Dynasties (2nd century BCE – 1st century BCE): Following the fall of the Mauryan Empire, the Shunga dynasty established its rule in parts of northern India, including Bihar. The Shungas were later succeeded by the Kanva dynasty. These dynasties ruled for several decades, and their rule marked a period of cultural and religious revival, with the spread of Buddhism and other philosophical schools.
  2. Gupta Empire (4th century CE – 6th century CE): One of the most notable periods in the history of Bihar was during the Gupta Empire. The Guptas established a powerful empire that encompassed a significant portion of northern India, including Bihar. The Gupta era is often referred to as the “Golden Age” of India, characterized by advancements in art, science, literature, and culture. Bihar was a center of learning, with the famous Nalanda University thriving during this period.
  3. Pala Empire (8th century CE – 12th century CE): After the decline of the Gupta Empire, Bihar came under the rule of the Pala dynasty. The Palas were known for their support of Buddhism and their patronage of art and learning. Nalanda and other Buddhist monastic institutions continued to flourish during this time, making Bihar a center of intellectual and religious activity.
  4. Turko-Afghan and Mughal Periods (12th century CE – 18th century CE): Bihar witnessed a series of invasions and changes in rulers during this period. The region came under the influence of various Turkic and Afghan dynasties, including the Delhi Sultanate and later the Mughal Empire. The city of Patna gained importance as a trade and administrative center.
  5. Colonial Era and British Rule (18th century CE – 20th century CE): Bihar became a part of the British colonial administration in India. The region played a significant role in the Indian independence movement. It was during this time that the Champaran Satyagraha led by Mahatma Gandhi took place in Bihar, marking a significant step toward India’s freedom from British rule.
  6. Post-Independence Period (1947 – present): After India gained independence in 1947, Bihar became a state within the newly formed Indian Union. Over the decades, Bihar has gone through various phases of development and governance, facing challenges related to economic development, social issues, and governance.

Throughout these historical periods, Bihar has remained an important cultural and historical center in India. It has contributed significantly to India’s intellectual, religious, and political landscape, and its rich history continues to shape its present and future.

The ancient capital of Bihar

The ancient capital of Bihar was Pataliputra, also known as Pataliputra or Pataligram. It held great historical and strategic significance as one of the most important cities in ancient India. Pataliputra was the capital of several prominent empires and dynasties, including the Mauryan Empire and the Gupta Empire.

Under the Mauryan Empire, Pataliputra served as the imperial capital and administrative center. It was established by King Udayin around the 4th century BCE and later became the seat of power for Chandragupta Maurya and his successors. During the Mauryan period, Pataliputra played a crucial role in shaping the political and cultural landscape of the Indian subcontinent.

Pataliputra continued to be a significant city during the Gupta Empire, known as the “Golden Age” of India. It remained a center of culture, learning, and trade, attracting scholars, philosophers, and traders from various parts of the world.

Today, the ancient city of Pataliputra is believed to be located near modern-day Patna, the capital of the state of Bihar in India. The archaeological remains of Pataliputra provide valuable insights into the urban planning, architecture, and historical significance of this ancient capital. The city’s legacy is an integral part of Bihar’s rich cultural and historical heritage.

Sher Shah Soori

Sher Shah Suri, also known simply as Sher Shah, was a prominent and accomplished ruler in medieval India. He is best known for his military and administrative reforms and his establishment of the Suri Empire. Here’s an overview of his life and contributions:

  1. Early Life and Rise to Power: Sher Shah was born in 1486 in the Sasaram region of present-day Bihar, India. He belonged to a noble Afghan family. He initially served under the Mughal ruler Babur and later under his son Humayun. However, he eventually rebelled against Humayun’s rule and embarked on a campaign to establish his own empire.
  2. Military Campaigns and Empire Building: Sher Shah’s military campaigns were marked by strategic brilliance and effective use of artillery and cavalry. He defeated Humayun in the Battle of Chausa in 1539 and the Battle of Kannauj in 1540, which led to his ascension to power. He established the Suri Empire, which encompassed a significant part of northern India.
  3. Administrative Reforms: One of Sher Shah’s most notable achievements was his focus on administrative and governance reforms. He introduced a well-organized administrative structure and efficient revenue collection system. His land revenue system, known as the “Dahsala” system, became a model for subsequent rulers. He also built an extensive network of roads and rest houses, known as “Sarais,” to facilitate trade and communication.
  4. Currency and Coinage: Sher Shah introduced a standard currency system, issuing a silver coin known as the “Rupiya.” The Rupiya remained in use for centuries and eventually gave rise to the modern Indian rupee.
  5. Architecture: Sher Shah’s reign saw the construction of several architectural marvels. He initiated the construction of the Grand Trunk Road, a historic trade and travel route that connected various parts of his empire. He also built the Purana Qila (Old Fort) in Delhi, which stands as a testament to his architectural legacy.
  6. Death and Legacy: Sher Shah’s rule was relatively short, as he died in 1545 during a military campaign. Despite his brief reign, his contributions had a lasting impact on the administrative and infrastructure systems of India. His reforms and policies influenced subsequent rulers, including the Mughal emperors. Sher Shah is remembered as a capable and visionary ruler who left an indelible mark on Indian history.

Sher Shah’s legacy continues to be celebrated, and his achievements are studied and admired for their enduring impact on governance, administration, and architecture in India.

Mughal in Bihar

The Mughal Empire, one of the most significant and influential dynasties in Indian history, had a notable presence in Bihar. The Mughal emperors ruled over Bihar as a part of their vast empire, and the region played a role in Mughal administration, culture, and history. Here are some key aspects of the Mughal presence in Bihar:

  1. Administrative Division: Bihar was initially a part of the larger Mughal province of Bengal, which included present-day Bangladesh as well. It was later separated and established as a separate province under Mughal rule.
  2. Governance and Local Administration: Bihar was governed by Mughal-appointed officials and administrators. The region was known for its fertile lands and revenue potential, making it an important economic center for the empire. The Mughals introduced their administrative systems, revenue collection methods, and governance structures in Bihar.
  3. Cultural Patronage: The Mughal emperors were known for their patronage of art, culture, and architecture. This influence extended to Bihar as well. While Bihar might not have seen as many grand architectural projects as some other parts of the empire, there were local instances of Mughal-style architecture and artistic endeavors.
  4. Trade and Economy: Bihar’s strategic location along major trade routes made it a significant hub for trade and commerce. The Mughal Empire’s stability and well-connected road networks facilitated trade between different regions, contributing to Bihar’s economic prosperity.
  5. Intellectual and Religious Traditions: The Mughal rulers were known for their religious tolerance and interactions with various cultural and religious groups. Bihar, with its rich historical and religious heritage, continued to be an important center for learning and spiritual practices.
  6. Revolt of Sher Shah Suri: Although Sher Shah Suri established his own empire prior to the Mughals, his influence and rule in Bihar cannot be ignored. His administrative reforms, including the construction of roads and administrative structures, had a lasting impact on the region and were adopted by subsequent rulers.
  7. British Colonial Period: The decline of the Mughal Empire eventually led to the rise of the British colonial rule in India. Bihar came under British control in the 18th century, and the Mughal influence waned further.

The Mughal presence in Bihar was marked by a combination of governance, cultural exchange, trade, and economic activity. While Bihar might not have been a primary center of Mughal rule compared to some other regions like Delhi or Agra, its historical significance within the broader context of the Mughal Empire cannot be overlooked.

British administration in Bihar

The British colonial administration in Bihar was a significant chapter in the region’s history, spanning from the 18th century until India’s independence in 1947. The British East India Company initially established control over parts of Bihar and Bengal, leading to significant political, economic, and social changes. Here’s an overview of the British administration in Bihar:

  1. East India Company Rule: The British East India Company gradually gained control over Bihar and Bengal through various treaties, battles, and alliances. The Battle of Plassey in 1757 marked a turning point when the Company’s victory led to its increased influence in the region.
  2. Administrative Reforms: The British introduced significant administrative reforms in Bihar. The region was initially part of the Bengal Presidency, but it later became a separate province under the British administration. The British established a systematic revenue collection system, introduced English law, and restructured local administration.
  3. Economic Changes: The British aimed to exploit Bihar’s resources for their economic benefit. They introduced cash crops like indigo, opium, and jute, which had far-reaching consequences for the local economy and social structure. The region’s agricultural and economic patterns underwent significant transformations.
  4. Infrastructure Development: The British introduced infrastructure projects such as railways, roads, and canals, which contributed to improved transportation and communication networks. The Grand Trunk Road, connecting Calcutta (Kolkata) to Delhi, passed through Bihar.
  5. Impact on Society: British rule had a profound impact on Bihar’s social fabric. The traditional agrarian society faced disruptions due to changes in landownership, tenancy systems, and revenue collection. Social and cultural changes were also observed, with the spread of English education and Christian missionary activities.
  6. Indian National Movement: Bihar played an important role in the Indian independence movement against British rule. Leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Rajendra Prasad, and Anugrah Narayan Sinha emerged from Bihar and contributed significantly to the struggle for freedom.
  7. Partition and Independence: In 1947, when India gained independence from British rule, Bihar was one of the provinces that witnessed religious and communal tensions during the partition. It was later divided along religious lines into the states of Bihar and Jharkhand in the year 2000.

The legacy of British colonial rule in Bihar is complex, encompassing both positive developments in infrastructure and education, as well as negative impacts on the economy and social structure. The struggle for independence and the contributions of Bihar’s leaders in shaping India’s future remain an integral part of the state’s historical narrative.

Establishment of Bihar

The historical formation and establishment of the present-day Indian state of Bihar involve a complex interplay of political, geographical, and administrative changes over centuries. Here’s an overview of the establishment of Bihar as a distinct administrative and political entity:

  1. Ancient and Medieval Periods: The region that is now Bihar has a rich history dating back to ancient times. It was home to several powerful empires and dynasties, including the Mauryan Empire, Gupta Empire, Pala Empire, and others. Various parts of Bihar were ruled by different dynasties, contributing to its diverse historical and cultural heritage.
  2. Mughal Period: Bihar was part of the Mughal Empire, experiencing both direct Mughal rule and periods of semi-autonomous governance under local rulers. The Mughals established their administrative structures and influenced the socio-economic landscape of the region.
  3. Colonial Era: Bihar came under British control through the conquests of the British East India Company. It was initially part of the Bengal Presidency, which included present-day Bangladesh. However, due to administrative and governance issues, Bihar and Orissa were separated from Bengal in 1912 to form the Bihar and Orissa Province. This marked a significant step toward the establishment of Bihar as a distinct entity.
  4. Post-Independence: After India gained independence from British rule in 1947, Bihar emerged as a state within the newly formed Indian Union. The state’s boundaries were established based on linguistic, cultural, and administrative considerations. The city of Patna became the capital of Bihar.
  5. Creation of Jharkhand: In the year 2000, the state of Bihar underwent a significant reorganization with the creation of the new state of Jharkhand. This division was based on the demands of the local tribal population and considerations of governance and development.

Today, Bihar is a state in northeastern India, bordered by Nepal to the north and various Indian states to the south, east, and west. It is known for its rich historical heritage, cultural diversity, and contributions to India’s socio-political landscape. The establishment of Bihar as a modern Indian state is a result of historical, administrative, and political processes that have shaped its identity over the centuries.

Map of Bihar

Bihar is a state located in the eastern part of India. It shares its borders with several Indian states and has an international border with Nepal. The geographical boundary of Bihar is defined as follows:

  1. Northern Boundary: Bihar shares its northern border with the country of Nepal. The border stretches along the foothills of the Himalayas and is demarcated by the districts of West Champaran, East Champaran, and Sitamarhi.
  2. Southern Boundary: The southern boundary of Bihar is formed by the river Ganges (Ganga), which flows from west to east through the state. The Ganges acts as a natural boundary, separating Bihar from the state of Jharkhand and parts of West Bengal.
  3. Eastern Boundary: Bihar’s eastern boundary is formed by the state of West Bengal. The border is demarcated by various districts, including Kishanganj, Purnia, Araria, and Katihar.
  4. Western Boundary: Bihar shares its western border with the state of Uttar Pradesh. The boundary with Uttar Pradesh is marked by districts such as Buxar, Rohtas, and Bhojpur.
  5. Northwestern Boundary: A smaller portion of Bihar’s boundary in the northwest is shared with the state of Uttar Pradesh, specifically with the districts of Ghazipur and Ballia.

The Ganges River remains a prominent geographical feature of Bihar, running through the state and influencing its landscape, culture, and history. The state’s diverse terrain includes fertile plains, rivers, hills, and forests, contributing to its historical significance and cultural heritage.

  1. Latitude and Longitude Range (Geographical Location):
    • Latitude: Bihar’s latitude extends from approximately 24° 20′ 10″ N to 27° 31′ 15″ N. This places Bihar in the northern hemisphere, relatively closer to the equator.
    • Longitude: Bihar’s longitude ranges from approximately 83° 19′ 50″ E to 88° 17′ 40″ E. It is situated to the east of the Prime Meridian.
  2. Total Area and Bihar’s Share in India’s Total Area:
    • Bihar covers an area of approximately 94,163 square kilometers.
    • Bihar’s share in India’s total land area is about 2.86%. Despite its relatively smaller size, Bihar’s population density and historical significance contribute to its importance.
  3. Height Above Sea Level:
    • Bihar’s average elevation is around 173 feet (about 52.7 meters) above sea level. The state’s terrain varies from low-lying plains to hilly areas.
  4. East to West and North to South Distances:
    • The east-to-west distance of Bihar is approximately 483 kilometers. This measurement gives an idea of the state’s width from its eastern to western border.
    • The north-to-south distance of Bihar is around 345 kilometers. This measurement provides an indication of Bihar’s length from its northern to southern border.
  5. Nepal Border Length:
    • Bihar shares a border of approximately 601 kilometers with Nepal to the north. This border has historical, cultural, and economic significance, facilitating cross-border interactions.
  1. Largest district of Bihar (in area):
    • West Champaran is indeed one of the largest districts in Bihar in terms of area. It shares this status with other districts such as Kaimur, Rohtas, and Jamui.
  2. Smallest district of Bihar (in area):
    • Sheohar is generally considered the smallest district in Bihar in terms of area.
  3. Hottest district of Bihar:
    • Gaya is often regarded as one of the hottest districts in Bihar due to its high temperatures during the summer months.
  4. Coldest district of Bihar:
    • Gaya is also known for having relatively colder temperatures during the winter months, but it’s important to note that Bihar as a whole doesn’t experience extreme cold compared to some other regions in India.
  5. Most rainy district of Bihar:
    • Muzaffarpur is known for receiving a significant amount of rainfall and is often considered one of the rainiest districts in Bihar.
  6. The lowest rainfall district of Bihar:
    • Buxar is known for receiving relatively lower rainfall compared to other districts in Bihar.
  7. Largest tributary of the Ganges in Bihar:
    • The Gandak River is the largest tributary of the Ganges in Bihar. It is also known as the Narayani River in Nepal before entering India.

These geographical and spatial characteristics contribute to Bihar’s diverse landscape, cultural heritage, and strategic location within the Indian subcontinent. The state’s position between the northern Himalayan region and the Gangetic plains has influenced its history, culture, and socio-economic development.

  • State Foundation Day (22 March 1912):
    • Bihar was officially established as a separate province on March 22, 1912, during British colonial rule in India. Prior to that, it was part of the Bengal Presidency.
  • First Partition of Bihar (1936 – Odisha):
    • In 1936, Bihar underwent its first partition, which resulted in the creation of the separate province of Odisha (formerly Orissa). This partition was a significant administrative and territorial change.
  • Second Partition of Bihar (November 15, 2000 – Jharkhand):
    • The second partition of Bihar occurred on November 15, 2000, leading to the formation of the new state of Jharkhand. This division aimed to address regional aspirations and promote more focused development.
  • Governor (Shri Rajendra Vishwanath Arlekar):
    • The Governor of Bihar is the constitutional head of the state. As of your provided information, Shri Rajendra Vishwanath Arlekar holds this position.
  • Chief Minister (Mr. Nitish Kumar – 8th time):
    • Mr. Nitish Kumar has served as the Chief Minister of Bihar multiple times. His leadership and political career have played a significant role in shaping the state’s governance.
  • Deputy Chief Minister (Mr. Tejashwi Yadav):
    • Mr. Tejashwi Yadav is the Deputy Chief Minister of Bihar, contributing to the state’s administration and governance.
  • Assembly (Bicameral – Legislative Council 75, Legislative Assembly 243):
    • Bihar has a bicameral legislature consisting of two houses: the Legislative Council (Upper House) with 75 members and the Legislative Assembly (Lower House) with 243 members.
  • Lok Sabha Seat (40) and Rajya Sabha Seat (16):
    • Bihar sends 40 members to the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and 16 members to the Rajya Sabha (Council of States), representing the state’s interests at the national level.
  • High Court (Patna High Court):
    • The Patna High Court serves as the highest judicial authority in Bihar, overseeing legal matters and dispensing justice.
  • Chief Justice (Justice Chakradhari Sharan Singh):
    • Justice Chakradhari Sharan Singh is the Chief Justice of the Patna High Court, presiding over the state’s judiciary.
  • Official Language (Hindi) and Second Official Language (Urdu):
    • Hindi is the official language of Bihar, while Urdu serves as the second official language, reflecting the linguistic diversity of the state.
  • Most Spoken Regional Language (Maithili):
    • Maithili is the most widely spoken regional language in Bihar, contributing to the state’s cultural identity.
  • Administrative Divisions (Circle, District, Subdivision, Block):
    • Bihar is administratively divided into circles, districts, subdivisions, and blocks, each serving specific governance and developmental roles.
  • Patna High Court Establishment (February 9, 1916):
    • The Patna High Court was established on February 9, 1916, and has since played a pivotal role in the state’s legal and judicial matters.

Area of Bihar

the total area of the state of Bihar, India, is approximately 94,163 square kilometers (36,357 square miles).

Patna High Court

The Patna High Court is the high court of the Indian state of Bihar. Established in 1916, it holds a crucial role in the state’s judicial system. Here’s an in-depth look at the history, significance, and key facts related to the Patna High Court:

History and Establishment:

  • The Patna High Court was established on February 3, 1916, under the Indian High Courts Act, 1861. It was a culmination of efforts to create a separate high court for the province of Bihar and Orissa (now Odisha).
  • Initially, the court was headquartered in the Bankipore area of Patna. It later moved to its present location near the Gandhi Maidan in Patna.


  • The Patna High Court has jurisdiction over the state of Bihar.
  • It functions as both an appellate court and a court of original jurisdiction.

Chief Justices and Judges:

  • The Chief Justice is the head of the Patna High Court.
  • Over the years, the court has been presided over by numerous distinguished Chief Justices and judges who have played a pivotal role in shaping legal jurisprudence.

Significance and Functions:

  • The Patna High Court serves as the highest court of appeal in the state of Bihar. It has the authority to hear appeals, revisions, and writ petitions.
  • The court adjudicates on a wide range of matters, including civil, criminal, constitutional, and administrative cases.
  • It has original jurisdiction in certain cases and possesses the power to issue writs for the enforcement of fundamental rights.

Structure and Divisions:

  • The Patna High Court consists of a Chief Justice and a roster of other judges.
  • The court is organized into various divisions, including civil, criminal, taxation, and administrative benches.

Judicial Pronouncements and Precedents:

  • The decisions and judgments delivered by the Patna High Court contribute to the development of legal precedents in the state.
  • Its judgments have a significant impact on legal matters and interpretations of laws in Bihar.

Role in Legal Education:

  • The Patna High Court has played a role in promoting legal education and awareness in Bihar. It conducts various programs, seminars, and initiatives to enhance legal knowledge among the public.

Architectural and Cultural Significance:

  • The Patna High Court building is an architectural landmark in Patna. Its design reflects a blend of colonial and Indian architectural elements.
  • The court’s premises are often visited by legal professionals, litigants, and the general public.

Digital Initiatives:

  • In recent years, the Patna High Court has taken steps to digitize its processes and facilitate e-filing, online case tracking, and other digital services.

The Patna High Court, with its rich history, legal significance, and commitment to justice, continues to uphold the rule of law and ensure access to justice for the people of Bihar. It stands as a symbol of the state’s judicial heritage and its commitment to delivering justice to its citizens.