Licchavi Lyceum


Licchavi Lyceum

Current Affairs

  • ChatGPT is a chat bot capable of generating human-like text using stored data with help of internet. 
  • Geo-heritage Sites: Natural sites or landscapes that have geological, ecological, or cultural value. Examples are Siwalik Fossil Park, Himachal Pradesh, Lonar Lake, Maharashtra
  • Vacant Post of Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha: Article 93 of the Constitution of India establishes the post of the Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha. 
  • Cooling Effect of Aerosol on Earth: Aerosols can have a direct and indirect cooling effect on the Earth’s surface. The direct cooling effect occurs when aerosols reflect sunlight back into space, which can reduce the amount of solar radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface. This can cause a decrease in temperature and a cooling effect.
  • Nominated Members: The Supreme Court has said that the nominated members of the Delhi Municipal Corporation cannot vote in the election of Delhi’s Mayor.
  • Article 124 of Indian Constitution: Judge of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with such of the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the States 

Parliamentary Panel on CBI

  • The department-related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances, Law and Justice have highlighted that the CBI’s conviction of cases rate has come down while its pendency in courts has escalated.

NASA’s Artemis 1 Mission

NASA’s Orion capsule came back to Earth on Sunday, December 11, 2022. This event marked the end of the inaugural Artemis 1 lunar mission. 

It is an experimental mission, to check if the capsule can be trusted to ferry humans to the moon and back in future missions.

Poverty Estimation in India

UN Groundwater Summit 2022

The importance of groundwater protection and techniques for its sustainable use will be highlighted during the United Nations-Water Summit on Groundwater 2022 in Paris, France.

The Groundwater accounts for 30% of freshwater accessible on the planet.

Groundwater management is imperative to meet the UN-mandated SDG 6 of providing clean water and sanitation for all.

The UN World Water Development Report (UN WWDR 2022) titled ‘Groundwater: Making the invisible visible’ describes the challenges and opportunities associated with the development, management and governance of groundwater across the world.

The fundamental right to water is recognised under Article 21 (right to life) of the Indian constitution.

Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) is empowered by the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, to frame groundwater policies and programs.

Atal Bhujal Yojana is a groundwater management scheme launched in 2019.

India Inequality Report 2022

According to ‘India Inequality Report 2022: Digital Divide’ released by the NGO Oxfam India – growing inequalities based on caste, religion, gender, class, and geographic location are being worryingly replicated in the digital space in India as well.

Key Highlights of the report:

  • Women constitute only one-third of internet users in India
  • Maharashtra has the highest internet penetration, while Bihar has the lowest.

Digital divide is a term that refers to the gap between demographics and regions that have access to modern information and communications technology (ICT), and those that do not or have restricted access.

Mahaparinirvan Diwas

The death anniversary of Dr. BR Ambedkar, the Father of the Indian Constitution, is celebrated on December 6 as the Mahaparinirvan Diwas.

Parinirvan: It translates as “nirvana” after death or liberation from the cycles of life and death.

‘BHARAT TAP’ initiative

BHARAT TAP initiative was launched by the Union Minister for Housing and Urban Affairs with the aim to reduce the waster wastage. The initiative will provide low-flow fixtures and sanitary ware at a mass scale. 

National Policy for Rare Diseases 2021

Salient features of Rare Diseases Policy: 

  • ‘Rare diseases’ have not been defined in the policy but classified into three groups based on expert opinion.
  • The Rare Diseases Policy aims to lower the high cost of treatment for rare diseases with increased focus on indigenous research with the help of a National Consortium to be set up with Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
  • The policy also envisage creation of a national hospital based registry of rare diseases so that adequate data is available for definition of rare diseases and for research and development related to rare diseases within the country.
  • The Policy also focuses on early screening and prevention through primary and secondary health care infrastructure such as Health and Wellness Centres and District Early Intervention Centres (DEICs) and through counselling for the high-risk parents.
  • A provision for financial support up to Rs. 20 lakhs under the Umbrella Scheme of Rastriya Arogya Nidhi is proposed for treatment, of those rare diseases that require a one-time treatment.
  • The Policy also envisages a crowd funding mechanism in which corporates and individuals will be encouraged to extend financial support through a robust IT platform for treatment of rare diseases.
  • The financial support for the treatment of rare diseases is proposed under the Umbrella Scheme of Rastriya Arogya Nidhi (RAN) and not under Ayushman Bharat PMJAY. 

Small Finance Bank

The Small Finance Bank (SFB) is a private financial institution intended to further the objective of financial inclusion. 

  • They are subject to all prudential norms and regulations of RBI as applicable to existing commercial banks like maintenance of Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR) and Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR). 
  • They are required to extend 75 percent of its Adjusted Net Bank Credit (ANBC) to the sectors eligible for classification as priority sector lending (PSL) by the Reserve Bank.
  • At least 50 percent of its loan portfolio should constitute loans and advances of up to Rs. 25 lakh.
  • It cannot set up subsidiaries to undertake non-banking financial services activities.
  • It is stipulated that at least 25 percent of its branches shall be in unbanked rural centers. 

Electricity Generation

Distribution Based on Fuel used

  • Total Installed Capacity: 4 lakh MW
  • Fossil Fuel Based:  60 %
  • Non Fossil Fuel based: 40 %

Distribution Sector wise

  • Coal: 68% 
  • Hydro: 18 %
  • Solar and Wind: 12 %
  • Nuclear: 2%

20th Livestock Census

The Livestock Census started in the country in the year 1919. It is being conducted once in 5 years. 

  • So far, 20 livestock censuses have been conducted.
  • Livestock Census is a complete count of the livestock and poultry at a pre-defined reference point of time.
  • The census usually covers all domesticated animals and headcounts of these animals are taken.
  • It is conducted by the Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry & Dairying in participation with all State Governments and UT Administrations.
  • The 20th Livestock Census was launched during the month of October 2018. 

NIPUN Bharat Mission

NIPUN Bharat Mission has been launched to ensure that every child in the country necessarily attains foundational literacy and numeracy by the end of Grade 3, by 2026-27.

  • NIPUN stands for National Initiative for Proficiency in Reading with Understanding and Numeracy.
  • NIPUN Bharat comes under the aegis of the centrally sponsored scheme of Samagra Shiksha.
  • It is being launched as a part of NEP (National Education Policy) 2020.
  • Department of School Education and Literacy is the nodal agency for implementing this scheme.

State of World Population Report 2021

The United Nations Population Fund’s (UNFPA) flagship State of World Population Report 2021 titled ‘My Body is My Own’ was launched recently.

  • As per the report, bodily autonomy is defined as the power and agency to make choices about your body without the fear of violence or having someone else decide for you.
  • United Nations Population Fund is a subsidiary organ of the UN General Assembly and works as a sexual and reproductive health agency.
  • It began operations in 1969.
  • Its mission is to deliver a world where every pregnancy is wanted, every childbirth is safe and every young person’s potential is fulfilled.

State of World Population Report 2021

The United Nations Population Fund’s (UNFPA) flagship State of World Population Report 2021 titled ‘My Body is My Own’ was launched recently.

  • As per the report, bodily autonomy is defined as the power and agency to make choices about your body without the fear of violence or having someone else decide for you.
  • United Nations Population Fund is a subsidiary organ of the UN General Assembly and works as a sexual and reproductive health agency.
  • It began operations in 1969.
  • Its mission is to deliver a world where every pregnancy is wanted, every childbirth is safe and every young person’s potential is fulfilled.


  • Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy or surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a surface-sensitive technique that enhances Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on rough metal surfaces.
  • SERS is a technique for molecular detection and characterization that relies on the enhanced Raman scattering of molecules that are adsorbed on, or near, SERS-active surfaces, such as nanostructured gold or silver.
  • The SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering) technique is known to
    be a powerful method for chemical and biological sensing applications.
  • Researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology Delhi have developed a handheld Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS)-based platform for early diagnosis of dengue and also gives dengue test results within one hour (rapid diagnosis).


  • It stands for Network for Greening the Financial System. 
  • The Network‘s purpose is to help strengthen the global response required to meet the goals of the Paris agreement. 
  • It aims to enhance the role of the financial system to manage risks and to mobilize capital for green and low-carbon investments

Health Sector In India

  • The current expenditure on health sector is 2.1 percent of GDP.
  • The National Health Policy, 2017 envisaged the government‘s health expenditure to be 2.5 percent of GDP by 2025. 

PM Daksh

  • PM-DAKSH (Pradhan Mantri Dakshta Aur Kushalta Sampann Hitgrahi) Yojana is a National Action Plan for skilling of marginalized persons covering SCs, OBCs, EBCs, DNTs, Sanitation workers including waste pickers.
  • PM DAKSH Yojana was launched by the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment in 2020-21.


Graphene is a single layer or monolayer of carbon atoms, tightly bound in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice.

  • It is an allotrope of carbon held together by van der waals forces, which can be overcome during the exfoliation of graphene from graphite.
  • Graphene is a single layer or monolayer of carbon atoms, tightly bound in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. 

Characteristics of Graphene

  • The thinnest compound is known to man at one atom thick,
  • The lightest material is known (with 1 sq. M. weighing 0.77 mg),
  • The strongest compound discovered (due to the very strong covalent bonds),
  • The best conductor of heat at room temperature,
  • The best conductor of electricity known and
  • High melting and boiling points.


International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy.

  • The IAEA was established as an autonomous organisation on 29 July 1957.
  • IAEA reports to both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council.


The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, known commonly as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal, is an agreement on the Iranian nuclear program reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015, between Iran and the P5+1 together with the European Union.

State Energy and Climate Index

  • Recently, the NITI Aayog launched the State Energy and Climate Index (SECI).
  • It is the first index that aims to track the efforts made by states and UTs in the climate and energy sector.
  • Gujarat, Kerala and Punjab have been ranked as the top three performers. 


  • It stands for Association of Southeast Asian Nations. 
  • It is a political and economic union of 10 member states in Southeast Asia, which promotes intergovernmental cooperation. 
  • ASEAN’s primary objective was to accelerate economic growth and through that social progress and cultural development. 
  • A secondary objective was to promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principle of United Nations charter.
  • Member Nations are: 


  • It stands for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership. 
  • The RCEP was conceived at the 2011 ASEAN Summit in Bali, Indonesia. 
  • RCEP is an agreement between the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)  and the five states with which ASEAN has existing FTAs (Australia, China, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand).

Note: RCEP is viewed as an alternative to the TPP trade agreement, which includes the United States but excludes China.

Concern of RCEP Member: The RCEP (Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership) members feared that the agreement under RCEP to open their economy may lead to excess export by China leading to dumping the goods like Steel in their domestic market.

Note: Russia and USA are not members.

India US relation

  • India-US relations have become increasingly multi-faceted, covering cooperation in areas such as trade, defense and security, education, science and technology, civil nuclear energy, space technology and applications, environment, and health.

India Japan relation

  • Civil nuclear deal with Japan has been signed. Japan has agreed to supply the nuclear equipment for nuclear power plants in India.

James Webb Space Telescope

  • It is a large infrared telescope orbiting around the Earth. 
  • It is a joint venture between the US (Nasa), European (Esa) and Canadian space agencies (CSA).

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India

  • Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is a statutory body established under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India.
  • The FSSAI has been established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006, which is a consolidating statute related to food safety and regulation in India.
  • FSSAI is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety.

Food Safety and Standards Authority of India

  • Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is a statutory body established under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India.
  • The FSSAI has been established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006, which is a consolidating statute related to food safety and regulation in India.
  • FSSAI is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the regulation and supervision of food safety.

Baijayant Panda Committee

It is a committee constituted by the Ministry of Defence constituted a High Level Expert Committee for a comprehensive review of National Cadet Corps (NCC).


  • It stands for Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act. 
  • FCRA regulates foreign donations and ensures that such contributions do not adversely affect the internal security of the country.
  • The Act, first enacted in 1976 was amended in the year 2010 and then 2020.
  • FCRA is implemented by the Ministry of Home Affairs.

Coal Gasification

  • Jindal Steel & Power Limited (JSPL) is going to set up a coal gasification plant , the second in the country,  at its Raigarh plant in Chhattisgarh.
  • It will reduce the overall carbon footprint.
  • Coal gasification is considered a greener alternative to burning the fossil fuel in furnaces.
  • It is the process of producing syngas, a mixture consisting of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), natural gas (CH4), and water vapour (H2O).
  • During gasification, coal is blown with oxygen and steam while also being heated under high pressure.
  • During the reaction, oxygen and water molecules oxidize the coal and produce syngas.


  • It stands for Pradhan Mantri Dakshta Aur Kushalta Sampann Hitgrahi Yojana. 
  • The aim is to provide the skill development training to marginalized persons of SC, OBC, Economically Backward Classes, De-notified tribes, Sanitation workers etc.  
  • The scheme is being implemented by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. 

International Energy Agency

  • It is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
  • The IEA was initially dedicated to responding to physical disruptions in the supply of oil, as well as serving as an information source on statistics about the international oil market and other energy sectors.
  • The IEA acts as a policy adviser to its member states, but also works with non-member countries, especially China, India, and Russia.

Electoral Bond

Aim of Electoral Bond: To cleanse the system of political funding in the country and in keeping with the government’s desire to move to a cashless economy. 

  • An electoral bond is designed instrument like a Promissory Note similar to a bank note that is payable to the bearer on demand and free of interest.
  • It can be purchased by any citizen of India or a body incorporated in India.
  • The bonds are issued in multiples of Rs. 1,000, Rs. and is available at specified branches of State Bank of India.

State Funding of Elections

Indrajit Gupta Committee (1998) endorsed state funding of elections in order to establish a fair playing field for parties with less money. The Committee recommended two limitations to state funding. 

  • Firstly, that state funds should  be given only to national and state parties allotted a symbol and not to independent candidates. 
  • Secondly, the Committee noted that at the time of the report the economic situation of the country only suited partial and not full state funding of elections. 

Ashwini Vaishnaw Committee

  • The advisory committee for semiconductor manufacturing in India has been formed.
  • The committee will be chaired by Ashwini Vaishnaw, minister of electronics and IT.
  • The Committee shall steer the objectives in a structured, efficient, and strategic manner, and provide necessary guidance to the India Semiconductor Mission. 

Stand Up India Scheme

  • The scheme aims to Launched to extend bank loans for Greenfield enterprises set up by the SC, ST & women entrepreneurs and to provide them handholding support. 
  • It was launched in 2016.
  • It seeks to promote entrepreneurship at the grass-root level of economic empowerment and job creation.
  • Loans under the scheme are available for only Greenfield projects.


  • The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) has decided to keep Pakistan on its grey list at the end of its weeklong plenary meeting in Paris. 
  • India had lobbied hard to get the global financial body to blacklist Pakistan for non-compliance in curbing terror financing.
  • The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an inter-governmental body established in 1989 on the initiative of the G7. 
  • It is a “policy-making body” which works to generate the necessary political will to bring about national legislative and regulatory reforms in various areas. The FATF Secretariat is housed at the OECD headquarters in Paris.

What is the objective of FATF?

The objectives of the FATF are to set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the international financial system.


  • The United Nations General Assembly suspended Russia from the Human Rights Council during a meeting recently.
  • The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations System inter-governmental body responsible for promoting and protecting human rights around the world.
  • Its 47 seats are filled by member states elected for three-year terms.
  • The UN General Assembly elects its members. 
  • India is its member.
  • Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. 


  • The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. 
  • The function of UNSC includes maintenance of world peace and security.
  • The change in the charter of the UN is also done by the UNSC.
  • The membership to the UN is also decided by the UNSC. 

Note: India has been trying to become the member of UNSC. The urge to become the member of UNSC is because of the special powers enjoyed by the members of Security Council.

Powers of members of Security Council:

  • There are five permanent members of the UNSC. They enjoy veto power.
  • Any reform in the UNSC will require the approval of two third the members of the UN and the consensus of all the permanent members.



  • The United Nations Children’s Fund is a United Nations programme headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
  • It is a member of the United Nations Development Group.

The Weapons of Mass Destruction Amendment Bill, 2022

  • The bill was recently passed in Lok Sabha.
  • The amendment bill is aimed at widening the ambit of the act passed in the year 2005 banning the manufacturing of Weapons of mass destruction.
  •  The Bill aims to curb the finance mechanism to the Weapons of Mass Destruction. 

What is Weapon of Mass Destruction? 

It includes weapon having potential to cause large scale destruction like Nuclear, Chemical or Biological Weapons. 

Biological Weapons Convention, 1972

The Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) effectively prohibits the development, production, acquisition, transfer, stockpiling and use of biological and toxin weapons. 

  • It was the first multilateral disarmament treaty banning an entire category of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
  • The BWC is a key element in the international community’s efforts to address WMD proliferation and it has established a strong norm against biological weapons.
  • The Convention has reached almost universal membership with 183 States Parties and four Signatory States.
  • India is its member. 

The Australia Group (AG)

It is an informal forum of countries which, through the harmonization of export controls, seeks to ensure that exports do not contribute to the development of chemical or biological weapons. India is not a member of AG. 

Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons(OPCW)

The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons(OPCW) is an independent, autonomous international organization with a working relationship with the United Nations.

The OPCW is the implementing body of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which entered into force in 1997.

  • The OPCW, with its 193 Member States, oversees the global endeavour to permanently and verifiably eliminate chemical weapons.
  • 98% of the global population live under the protection of the Convention.
  • 98% of the chemical weapons stockpiles declared by possessor States have been verifiably destroyed.
  • The OPCW is authorized to perform inspections to verify that signatory states are complying with the convention.
  • By the 2001 Relationship Agreement between the OPCW and the United Nations, the OPCW reports on its inspections and other activities to the UN through the office of the Secretary- General.
  • India is a member of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Recently, India’s Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has been chosen as the external auditor by a prestigious intergovernmental organisation working for the elimination of chemical weapons.

‘Varuna’ Naval Exercise

  •  It is a bilateral naval exercise between India and France in the Arabian Sea. 

India’s First Steel Slag Road

  • Surat, Gujarat is the first Indian city to get a road built from processed steel slag (industrial waste). 

Khelo India University Games 2021

  •  It will be held in Karnataka from 24th April 2022.

Plea to Enforce Fundamental Duties

In February 2022, a petition was filed in the Supreme Court seeking the enforcement of Fundamental Duties. 

  • Fundamental Rights are made non-justiciable in nature.
  • Sardar Swaran Singh Committee was set up by Congress Party in 1976 to make recommendations about fundamental duties. 
  • The committee recommended the inclusion of a chapter on fundamental duties in the Constitution.

NFC technology

  • NFC is a short range wireless connectivity technology that allows NFC enabled devices to communicate with each other and transfer information quickly and easily with a single touch. 
  • It is used in Bill Payment, pay bills, exchange of business cards, download coupons, or share a document.
  • NFC transmits data through electromagnetic radio fields. 
  • NFC enabled devices must be either physically touching or within a few centimeters from each other for data transfer to occur.

UNEP Report on Noise Pollution

  • The first chapter of the report, called Frontiers 2022. 
  • Moradabad in Uttar Pradesh stood at the second place in the list of most noisy city. 

Space Situational Assessment Report

  • The report has been released by ISRO in April 2022. 
  • It highlights the increasing threat of Space Debris caused due to past space missions. 


The World Health Organization (WHO) has suspended supply of Covaxin. 

About WHO

WHO is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health/ it was established on 7 April 1948, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. 


P-8I aircraft

Indian Navy recently commissioned second P-8I squadron. It is designed for long-range anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and anti-surface warfare.

Fire in Sariska Tiger Reserve

A massive fire has broken out in the Sariska Tiger Reserve. 

About Sariska Tiger Reserve

  • It is located in Alwar district, Rajasthan.
  • It became part of India’s Project Tiger in 1978.
  • It is the first reserve in the world with successfully relocated tigers.
  • It is rich in mineral resources. 
  • It is a part of the Aravalli Range and the Khathiar-Gir dry deciduous forests eco-region.

Assam-Meghalaya Border Dispute

Assam and Meghalaya have partially resolved a 50-year-old border dispute. Both states signed a “historic” agreement for a closure of disputed sectors. 

Houthi rebels

The Houthi rebels have announced the proposal for ceasefire if Saudi Arabia stops its air strikes. The Yemen war has killed hundreds of thousands of people. It is a group of Zaidi Shia Muslims who ruled a kingdom in the province for nearly 1,000 years.

BRICS Media Forum

Leading media groups from BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) have put together a three-month long training programme for journalists.

About the BRICS Media Forum:

  • The Forum was established in 2015 by media organisations from the five countries. 
  • The Hindu is the participant from India.

About BRICS?

  • BRICS is an acronym for the powerful grouping of the world’s leading emerging market economies, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
  • The BRICS mechanism aims to promote peace, security, development and cooperation.

National Commission for Women

National Commission for Women (NCW) in collaboration with Delhi State Legal Services Authority (DSLSA) has launched a legal aid clinic which will act as a single-window facility for resolving grievances of women by offering them free legal assistance.

Legal Aid Clinic

Under the new legal aid clinic, counseling will be provided for walk-in complainants, women in distress will be given legal assistance, advice and information on various schemes of the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA). 

About National Commission for Women (NCW)

  • It is a statutory body created in 1992. 
  • It enjoys all the powers of a civil court.
  • It table reports to the central government every year. 
  • The NCW is only recommendatory and has no power to enforce its decisions.
  • Commission lacks constitutional status, and thus has no legal powers to summon police officers or witnesses.

Delimitation Commission

A plea has been moved in the Supreme Court by two Kashmir residents challenging the Centre’s decision to constitute the delimitation commission for redrawing the assembly and Lok Sabha constituencies in Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir.

What is Delimitation?

The process of allocation of number of seats in legislature and their demarcation into territories is known as process of Delimitation of Constituencies.

  • Under Article 82, the Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act after every Census.

Legal Rights to Wild Animals

Ecuador, a South American country has become the first country in the world to give legal rights to wild animals.

El Nino

  1. This is a name given to the periodic development of a warm ocean current along the coast of Peru as a temporary replacement of the cold Peruvian current.
  2. ‘El Nino’ is a Spanish word meaning ‘the child’, and refers to the baby Christ, as this current starts flowing during Christmas.
  3. The presence of the El Nino leads to an increase in sea-surface temperatures in the Tropical East-Central Pacific region and weakening of the trade winds in the region.

La Nina

  1. La Nina is a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that is the counterpart of El Nino. 
  2. The name La Nina originates from Spanish, meaning “the little girl”. 
  3. During a period of La Nina, the sea surface temperature across the equatorial Eastern Central Pacific Ocean will be lower than normal by 3 to 5 °C. 
  4. It has extensive effects on the weather in North America. 

Menstruation Benefit Bill 2017

  • It seeks to provide leave for menstruating school and college-going girls, women in jobs, better facilities for rest at the workplace during menstruation. 
  • It was introduced in the Legislative Assembly of Arunachal Pradesh in March 2022. 
  • In November 2017, it was introduced as a private member’s bill, in the Lok Sabha.

What is a Private Member’s Bill?

  • The Bill introduced by a non minister is called Private Member’s Bill. 
  • It is drafted by the individual member of the legislature and not by the lay ministry. 
  • There is little chances of the bill getting passed in the Parliament as the government usually does not support it. 
  • Its rejection by the House has no implication on the health of the government.  
  • A private member’s bill can be introduced and discussed only on Friday.

Has a private member’s bill ever been passed?

Yes. Various private members bills have been passed by the Parliament.  The recent example being Rights of Transgender Persons Bill, 2014. 

PM-YUVA Scheme

  • Aim of this scheme is to create young aspiring writers into skilled writers representing the rich heritage of India.
  • Through the scheme, new writers up to age of 30 will be allowed to participate and become future writers through a mentorship program.
  •  Ministry of Education has launched this scheme. 

Right to be Forgotten

  • Several local courts have ruled recently that the right to be forgotten is a part of right to privacy. 
  • Right to privacy was recognised as a fundamental right by India’s Supreme Court in 2017 (Puttaswamy Judgment).

What is the right to be forgotten?

  • It allows a person to seek deletion of private information from the Internet. The concept has found recognition in some jurisdictions abroad, particularly the European Union.

Article 21 of Indian Constitution

  • The Right to Protection of Life and personal liberty is the main object of Article 21. 
  • The fundamental right provided by Article 21 is one of the most important rights that the Constitution guarantees. The Supreme Court of India has described this right as the ‘heart of fundamental rights’.


  • MRSAM stands for Medium Range Surface to Air Missile. 
  • It is a high response, quick reaction, vertically launched supersonic missile, designed to neutralize enemy aerial threats – missiles, aircraft, guided bombs, helicopters.
  • This MRSAM version is a Surface-to-Air Missile developed jointly by DRDO and Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI), for use by the Indian Army.

Earth Hour

  • Every year, Earth Hour is observed on the last Saturday of March at 8:30 pm.
  • The topic for Earth Hour 2022 will be “Shape Our Future”.
  • Earth Hour is an annual event organized by the World Wildlife Fund that promotes conservation and sustainable energy. 
  • During this time, civilians are encouraged to switch off their lights for one hour to help reduce the effect of global warming and raise awareness for climate change and wildlife conservation.


  • Bay of Bengal Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) completes 25 years of the journey this year that began. 
  • It was established in Bangkok in 1997.
  • The fifth summit of BIMSTEC will be held in Colombo on March 30, 2022.
  • In an effort to integrate the region.  
  • BIMSTEC, which now includes five countries from South Asia and two from ASEAN, is a bridge between South Asia and Southeast Asia. 
  • It includes all the major countries of South Asia, except Maldives, Afghanistan and Pakistan.
  • It constitutes seven Member States: five deriving from South Asia, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and two from Southeast Asia, including Myanmar and Thailand.

Bucharest Nine

  • Bucharest Nine jointly wrote to acquaint the Indian public with the basic facts on the ground about the Russian aggression in Ukraine. 
  • The “Bucharest Nine” is a group of nine NATO countries in Eastern Europe that became part of the US-led military alliance after the end of the Cold War.

National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA)

  • NPPA has announced a hike in prices of around 800 essential drugs from 1 April. 
  • These drugs are included in the National Essential List of Medicine (NELM).
  • NPPA comes under the Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers. 
  •  It is an independent Regulator for pricing of drugs. 

Hindu may get Minority Status

  • A plea has been filed in the Supreme Court seeking minority status for Hindus in North East States, Punjab and in J&K.  
  • Although Hindus are in minority in 10 states as per the 2011 Census but, they are not able to avail the benefits of schemes meant for minorities.

Project UNNATI

  • Ministry of Rural Development has launched this project. 
  • It is a skilling project that aims to upgrade the skill base of the MGNREGA beneficiaries, thereby improving their livelihoods so that they can move from the current partial employment to full-time employment and hence reduce their dependence on Mahatma Gandhi NREGA.
  • The project is meant for providing training for one adult member of a household who has completed 100 days of work under Mahatma Gandhi NREGA. 

PACER Initiative

  • It stands for Polar Science and Cryosphere Research(PACER).
  • Ministry of Earth Sciences has launched this initiative. 
  • The objective of the initiative is to study various aspects relating to Polar and the Cryosphere with special emphasis on the Antarctic, Arctic and Glaciers of the Himalayas.

Bhoomi Rashi Portal

  • The Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways has informed Lok Sabha about the Bhoomi Rashi Portal.
  • The aim is to digitize the land acquisition process for National Highway (NH) projects.
  • The portal has expedited significantly the process of land acquisition for National Highways, making it error-free & more transparent with notifications at every stage being processed on a real-time basis. 

Dare2eraD TB program

  • On the Occasion of World TB Day, the Union Minister of Science & Technology has announced the launch of the “Dare2eraD TB” program.
  • Data-Driven Research to Eradicate TB.
  • 24 March is celebrated as world TB day. 

World Air Quality Report 2021

  • It is released by IQAir, a Swiss organization.
  • According to the report, Mumbai’s pollution level 9 times above WHO limit. 

Hunger Watch Survey 2022

  • The Right to Food Campaign conducted a Hunger Watch Survey to analyze the effect of lockdown. 
  • as per the report, 79 percent people do not have the access to enough food. 

India abstained UNSC voting

  • India has not directly criticised Moscow’s actions against Ukraine and has abstained from voting at the UNSC.
  •  At present, India is heavily dependent on Russia for its arms imports.
  • Russia has supported Indian in past wars. 

World Water Development Report 2022

  • Sri Lanka is going through an economic crisis.  It is facing issues like long queues in front of petrol pump, steep rise in prices of essential commodities and frequent blackouts. 
  • The Sri Lankan economy has been facing both domestic and foreign debt. In addition, Sri Lanka has been facing a trade imbalance crisis since COVID-19 pandemic.  

Crisis in Sri Lanka

  • The Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways has organized an event to commemorate the successful seven years of the Sagarmala program.
  • The aim of the program is to promote port-led development in the country through harnessing India’s 7,500 km long coastline, 14,500 km of navigable waterways. 
  • Sagarmala projects include projects from various categories such as modernisation of existing ports and terminals, new ports etc. 

Sagarmala Programme

  • The Ministry of Ports, Shipping and Waterways has organized an event to commemorate the successful seven years of the Sagarmala program.
  • The aim of the program is to promote port-led development in the country through harnessing India’s 7,500 km long coastline, 14,500 km of navigable waterways. 
  • Sagarmala projects include projects from various categories such as modernisation of existing ports and terminals, new ports etc. 

National Board for Wildlife

  • Standing Committee of the National Board for Wildlife has recommended to celebrate October 5 as National Dolphin Day. 
  • The National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) is the statutory body in India for all wildlife-related matters. 
  • The NBWL is chaired by the Prime Minister. 

Zero Budget Natural Farming

  • The Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare has informed Rajya Sabha about the Bharatiya Prakritik Krishi Paddhati(BPKP) Scheme.
  • The scheme mainly focuses on the exclusion of all synthetic chemical inputs and promotes on-farm biomass recycling with major stress on biomass mulching, use of cow dung-urine formulations and other plant-based preparations. 

Gahirmatha Beach

  • About 2.45 lakh Olive Ridley Sea Turtles arrived Gahirmatha Beach in Odisha. 
  • Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary along the Odisha coast is famous for laying eggs by turtles. 

Export Preparedness Index 2021

  • NITI Aayog Releases Second Edition of Export Preparedness Index 2021. 
  • Gujarat tops Niti Aayog’s export index for second year in a row. 
  • The report is prepared by NITI Aayog in partnership with the Institute of Competitiveness. 
  • It aims to examine export readiness and export performance of the Indian States and Union Territories. 


  • It is a joint mission of  ESA and the Russian space agency, Roscosmos.
  • The aim of the mission is to address the question of whether life has ever existed on Mars?
  • The European Space Agency’s ExoMars 2022 mission has been delayed after the agency suspended all cooperation with Russia’s space program Roscosmos.

Free Ration Scheme Extended

  • The union cabinet has extended the free ration scheme by further 6 months. 
  • The scheme was supposed to end in March 2022. 
  • Free food grains are being provided under Pradhan Mantri Gareeb Kalya Anna Yojana. 

Constitution Benches

  • Women judges in SC have short tenures and it reduces chances of being part of Constitution Benches which decide important questions of law. 
  • Constitution bench is the name given to the benches of the Supreme Court of India which consist of at least five judges of the court.  
  • It sits to decide any case “involving a substantial question of law, like interpretation of constitution. 
  • The Chief Justice of India constitutes it. 

Rhino Census

  • The One Horn Rhino Census is was conducted in Kaziranga National Park, Assam in March 2022. 
  • The population of one-horned rhinoceros increased by 200 over the last four years in Assam’s Kaziranga National Park and Tiger Reserve.
  • Last time it was conducted in 2018 when the population of one horn rhino was 2413. 

About Rhinoceros

  • Only the Great One-Horned Rhino is found in India.
  • Also known as Indian rhino, it is the largest of the rhino species.
  • It is classified as Vulnerable as per IUCN Red List.
  • It has been mentioned in Schedule I as per Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. 
  • It lies in Appendix I in CITES. 

Operation Ganga

  • It is an evacuation mission to bring back all the Indian nationals who are currently stranded in Ukraine.

Koyna Dam

  • The project got delayed as the as the expenditure exceeded the estimate. 
  • It is being constructed on the left bank of Koyana river in Maharashtra. 


  • The Prime Minister has launched the Indian Space Association (ISpA) via video conferencing.
  • ISpA will also work towards building global linkages for the Indian space industry to bring in critical
    technology and investments into the country.

Tulu Language

  • Recently, Tulu speakers demand for official language status, inclusion in Eighth Schedule.
  • Tulu is a Dravidian language spoken mainly in two coastal districts of Karnataka and Kasaragod of Kerala.

Export Preparedness Index

  • The Haryana government has challenged in Supreme Court, the order by the Punjab & Haryana High Court, to halt 75% quota in private jobs for locals.

Punjab & Haryana High Court stays Local Reservation

  • The Haryana government has challenged in Supreme Court, the order by the Punjab & Haryana High Court, to halt 75% quota in private jobs for locals.

Ministry of Co-operation

  • Recently, a separate ‘Ministry of Co-operation’ has been created by the Central Government.
  • Co-operative is a voluntary association of individuals having common needs. 

Mission LUCY

  • Recently NASA has launched the Lucy Mission.
  • Lucy space probe will explore the asteroids that share Jupiter’s orbit along with the Sun.

Justice Rohini Commission

  • Union Government had constituted a four member commission headed by Justice G. Rohini in 2017 to improve the equitability of sharing of benefits among OBCs.
  • Recently, the term of the committee was extended by 6 months. 
  • Article 340 of the Indian Constitution lays down conditions for the appointment of a Commission to
    investigate the conditions of backward classes.

Basic Structure

  • Recently, Kesavananda Bharati of the landmark Kesavananda Bharati vs State of Kerala case passed away.
  • In Kesavananda Bharati judgement, Supreme court (SC) outlined basic structure of the constitution.
  • In this famous case, the SC held that Parliament had the power to amend any or all provisions of the Constitution (including Fundamental Rights) but, it should not alter, damage or destroy the essential features or the fundamental principles of the Constitution. This came to be known as the “Basic Structure Doctrine”.

UAE will invest in J&K

  • The Gulf country has agreed for the investment in Jammu and Kashmir. The agreement was signed in Feb 2022. 

Montreux Convention

  • Turkey is set to implement the Montreux Convention to restrict the movement of Russian War ships through Bosporus and Dardanelles straits. 
  • The Bosporus and Dardanelles straits, also known as the Turkish Straits or the Black Sea Straits, connect the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea via the Sea of Marmara.
  • The Montreux Convention is an international agreement governing the Bosporus and Dardanelles Straits in Turkey.

G20 Summit Presidency

  • India will hold the Presidency of the G20 scheduled from 1 December 2022 to 30 November 2023.
  • The members of the G20 are: Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union. 

Bomb Cyclone

  • Another bomb cyclone is in making over the North Atlantic. 
  • It is a mid-latitude cyclone that intensifies rapidly.
  • Bomb cyclones put forecasters on high alert, because they can produce significant harmful impacts.
  • It is temperate in origin and has fronts. 
  • It forms during winter. 

Anti-defection law

  • The High Court of Bombay upheld the defection of Congress MLA in BJP in Goa.
  • Court found the merger is not the violation of tenth schedule of Indian constitution. 
  • Tenth Schedule exempts defectors from disqualification if their original political party merges with another party and two-thirds of the members of that party in the legislature agree with the merger.

International Court of Justice (ICJ)

  • Ukraine has filed an application before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) for  proceedings against the Russian Federation. 
  • ICJ was established in 1945 by the United Nations charter. 
  • The Court is composed of 15 judges, who are elected for terms of office of nine years by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council. 
  • The Headquarter of ICJ is situated at Hague, Netherlands. 

Uniform Civil Code

  • Recently, the Ministry of Law and Justice said in response to a PIL filed in 2019 that the implementation of
    the Uniform Civil Code (UCC), is a matter of public policy and that no direction in this regard can be issued by the Court.
  • UCC provides for one law for the entire country, applicable to all religious communities in their personal matters such as marriage, divorce, inheritance, adoption etc.
  • Article 44 of the Constitution lays down that the state shall endeavor to secure a UCC for the citizens
    throughout the territory of India.

National Science Day (NSD)

  • 28th February is celebrated as National Science Day (NSD) in India.
  • NSD is celebrated to commemorate discovery of the ‘Raman Effect’, which led to Sir C.V. Raman winning the Nobel Prize.
  • Raman Effect: The wavelength of light changes when a light beam is deflected by molecules.


  • Neutrinos, are the second most widely occurring particle in the universe, only second to photons, the particle which makes up light.
  • In fact, neutrinos are so abundant among us that every second, there are more than 100 trillion of them passing right through each of us and we never even notice them.
  • Swiss scientist Wolfgang Pauli discovered it in 1930. 
  • The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) Project is a a world-class underground laboratory located in Tamil Nadu. The aim of INO is to study neutrinos.

Violence in Birbhum district, Bengal

In a violence 12 people were killed  including that of women and children. The opposition is asking for the resignation of current chief minister citing the violation of article 355.  

Article 355

According to Article 355,  “It shall be the duty of the Union to protect every State against external aggression and internal disturbance and to ensure that the government of every State is carried on in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution”

What if Article 355 gets violated?

Centre can dismiss the state government on this ground citing the violation of the constitution.

Although, Centre rarely used this provision,  it has been used to justify the imposition of President Rule in the State.

What measures exists to safeguard the false imposition of President Rule

The matter was referred to honorable SC in famous S. R. Bommai case. The Supreme Court held that Presidential proclamation under Article 356 is not absolute and the power conferred by Article 356 on president is conditioned power. The Supreme Court held that presidential proclamation is not immune from judicial review.

Appointment of CM

Pushkar Singh Dhami again became the chief minister of Uttarakhand. He has lost his legislative assembly election. 

Who appoints CM?

The the chief minister is appointed by the governor of the State. 

Can only existing MLA or MLC become the CM?

A non member can also become the CM but, he has to get the membership of the Legislature or the Council within 6 months of taking the oath. 

Proposed reforms in Criminal justice System

The government has initiated the process of amendment to laws such as Indian Penal Code, the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Indian Evidence Act.

What is criminal justice system?

Criminal Justice System is tool social control to deliver justice to one and all using the authority of state and under the guidance of judiciary. 

Objectives of criminal justice system

  • To prevent the occurrence of crime.
  • To punish the offenders.
  • To rehabilitate the criminals.
  • To compensate the victims to possible extent.
  • To maintain law and order in the society.
  • To deter offenders from committing any criminal act in the future. 

Have these objectives been achieved in India?

Looking at the high rate of crimes in India, we are still on the way to achieve the novel objectives of Criminal Justice System. 

Although hundred percent compliance of the objectives of Criminal Justice System is difficult to achieve but, the law and order situation in western countries like Finland has et a benchmark for us. 

Key players in the criminal justice system

The four key players in the criminal justice system are the police, the Public Prosecutor, the defence lawyer and the judge.

Reforms Needed

The present criminal justice system was designed by the British with the purpose of ruling the nation. Therefore, the relevance of these 19th century laws is debatable in the 21st century. 

  • Ineffectiveness: The purpose of the criminal justice system was to protect the rights of the innocents and punish the guilty, but now a days system has become a tool of harassment of common people.
  • Pendency of Cases: According to Economic Survey 2018-19, there are about 3.5 crore cases pending in the judicial system, especially in district and subordinate courts, which leads to actualization of the maxim “Justice delayed is justice denied.”
  • Huge Under-trials: India has one of the world’s largest number of under-trial prisoners. According to NCRB -Prison Statistics India (2015), 67.2% of our total prison population comprises of under trial prisoners.
  • Investigation: Police is being a front line of the criminal judiciary system, which played a vital role in the administration of justice. Corruption, huge workload and accountability of police is a major hurdle in speedy and transparent delivery of justice.

Malimath Committee (2003)

The mandate of Malimath committee was to suggest the required measures to strengthen the Criminal Justice System in India. 

The Committee opined that the existing system “weighed in favour of the accused and did not adequately focus on justice to the victims of crime.”

Key Recommendations: 

  • Stringent punishment for false registration of Police Complaints. 
  • The confessions made before a superintendent of Police rank officer be admitted as the evidence in court. 
  • There should be a separate investigation wing dissociated from the Law and Order wing.
  • Increase the strength of judges and courts in the country. 
  • It suggested separate witness protection law so that safety and security of witness can be ensured and they can be treated with dignity.
  • Reduce the vacations of court on account of long pendency of cases.

Madhav Menon Committee (2007)

Menon Committee on criminal justice reforms submitted its report 2007.

Key Recommendations: 

  • A dedicated fund be created to compensate victims. 
  • Set up a separate authority at national level to deal with crimes threatening the country security.

Abel Prize 2022

  • Awarded to Professor Dennis Parnell Sullivan. 
  • For his groundbreaking contributions to topology. 
  • The Abel Prize is awarded annually to outstanding mathematicians.
  • It is managed by The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.


  • An Indian Army contingent has arrived in Seychelles for the ninth edition of the Joint Military Exercise Lamitiye 2022 
  • It is a bilateral military exercise between the Indian Army and Seychelles Defence Forces (SDF).

Biomass Co-firing

  • Commission for Air Quality Management recently reviewed the progress of Biomass Co-firing.
  • It will help to address the problem of air pollution due to farm stubble burning. 
  • It will help to reduce the  reduce carbon footprint of thermal power plants. 

Treaty of the High Seas

  • The fourth meeting of the Intergovernmental Conference (IGC-4) was held in New York
  • The aim to finalize the draft of the instrument on the conservation and sustainable use of marine Biological diversity in areas Beyond National Jurisdiction (BBNJ).

National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST)

  • The National Commission for Scheduled Tribes has been dysfunctional for the last four years.
  • It has not delivered a single report to Parliament, a parliamentary committee has said in a recent report.
  • The Commission presents an annual report to the President.
  • This is a constitutional body established by Article 338-A of the Constitution.

Fly Ash

  • It is a coal combustion product.
  • Fly ash contains substantial amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and calcium oxide (CaO). 
  • Small amount of arsenic, beryllium, boron etc. are also present in the Fly Ash. 

Chandigarh launched Carbon Watch

  • It is a mobile application to assess the carbon footprint of an individual.
  • Once a person downloads the application, she will need to fill basic details like Water, Energy, Waste Generation and Transport (Vehicular movement). 
  • The application will calculate the Carbon Footprint of individual based on above inputs.

Carbon Footprint

  • Carbon footprint is the amount of greenhouse gases-especially carbon dioxide-released into the atmosphere by a particular human activity.

Par-Tapi-Narmada River-Linking Project

It proposes to link three rivers:

  1. Par, originating from Nashik in Maharashtra in Western Ghat
  2. Tapi, from Saputara that flows through Maharashtra and Surat in Gujarat.
  3. Narmada, originating in Madhya Pradesh and flowing through Maharashtra and Gujarat.
  • The project proposes to transfer river water from the surplus regions of the Western Ghats to the deficit regions of Saurashtra and Kutch.