Licchavi Lyceum


Licchavi Lyceum

Define the term biome. List the terrestrial biomes and describe the characteristics of Savanna biome.

Biome Definition: A biome is a large-scale, distinct geographical region characterized by specific climate patterns, predominant vegetation types, and associated animal communities. Biomes are defined by their unique combination of environmental factors and serve as ecological zones with relatively consistent characteristics across different parts of the world.

Terrestrial Biomes: There are several terrestrial biomes recognized worldwide, each distinguished by its climate, vegetation, and ecological features. Some of the major terrestrial biomes include:

  1. Tundra Biome: Characterized by extremely cold temperatures, permafrost, and a short growing season. Vegetation includes mosses, lichens, and dwarf shrubs. Found in the Arctic and high mountain ranges.
  2. Taiga (Boreal Forest) Biome: Features dense coniferous forests with cold winters and short growing seasons. Dominated by evergreen trees like spruce, pine, and fir. Found in subarctic regions.
  3. Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome: Exhibits distinct seasons with cold winters and moderate summers. Dominated by deciduous trees that shed their leaves in the fall, such as oak, maple, and beech. Found in temperate zones.
  4. Temperate Grassland (Prairie) Biome: Characterized by vast grasslands with fertile soils and hot summers and cold winters. Dominated by grasses and herbaceous plants. Found in temperate regions.
  5. Tropical Rainforest Biome: Known for high temperatures, abundant rainfall, and year-round growing seasons. Features lush vegetation with diverse plant and animal species. Found near the equator.
  6. Tropical Savanna (Grassland) Biome: Contains grasslands with scattered trees, distinct wet and dry seasons, and a variety of grazing animals. Found in tropical regions.
  7. Desert Biome: Exhibits arid conditions with minimal rainfall and extreme temperature variations. Vegetation is often adapted to conserve water. Found in various latitudes, including subtropical deserts.
  8. Mediterranean Biome: Features mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers. Vegetation includes drought-resistant shrubs and trees like olives and cork oaks. Found in Mediterranean regions.
  9. Chaparral (Shrubland) Biome: Characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. Features shrubby vegetation and is prone to wildfires. Found in Mediterranean climates.

Savanna Biome Characteristics: The savanna biome is a distinct terrestrial ecosystem known for its unique characteristics:

Climate: Savannas have a tropical or subtropical climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. Rainfall typically occurs during the summer months, while the dry season is characterized by drought conditions.

Vegetation: Savannas are dominated by grasses, with scattered trees and shrubs. The tree density is lower than in forests, and the tree canopy is often open, allowing grasses to thrive. Iconic trees in savannas include acacias and baobabs.

Wildlife: Savannas support a diverse array of wildlife, including large herbivores like elephants, zebras, giraffes, and antelopes. Predators such as lions, cheetahs, and hyenas are also common.

Fire Adaptations: Fire is a natural part of the savanna ecosystem, and many plants and animals have adapted to frequent fires. Some plants require fire to germinate, and certain animals, like insects and reptiles, use fire as a survival strategy.

Human Impact: Savannas are susceptible to human activities such as agriculture, grazing, and urbanization. These activities can lead to habitat loss and fragmentation, affecting both wildlife and traditional human populations that rely on the savanna for livelihoods.

Savannas play a crucial role in global biodiversity and carbon cycling. They are often considered a transition zone between forests and deserts and are vital for supporting a wide range of plant and animal species. Despite their ecological importance, savannas face threats from deforestation, climate change, and land-use changes, making their conservation and sustainable management essential.