Ecology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of interactions between organisms and their environment.
It deals with the ways in which organisms are molded by their environment, how they make use of environmental resources including energy flow and mineral cycling.
The branch of ecology is divided into Autecology, Synecology and habitat ecology.
Autecology, also called Species Ecology, the study of the interactions of an individual organism or a single species with the living and nonliving factors of its environment.
Synecology is the study of group of organisms of different species which are associated together as a unit in form of a community. It is also known as community ecology.
Habitat Ecology: It is where the species will attempt to be as adaptive as possible. Habitats may be an open geographical area or a specific site
1. Organisms: (individual) basic unit of study. This is the first and basic unit of classification.
2. Population: ‘Population’ is defined as a group of freely interbreeding individuals of the same species present in a specific area at a given time.
3. Community: A group of organisms consisting of a number of different species that live in an area and interact with each other.
4. Ecosystem: A communities of organisms and their physical environment, interacting as an ecological unit.
Study of the community in relation to the structure of its ecosystem-nutrients cycling, climate, energy flow etc.
5. Biome: A large community unit, characterized by a major vegetation type and associated fauna, found in a specific climatic region is a biome. Biomes refer basically to terrestrial areas.
It is a large regional unit characterised by a major vegetation type and associated fauna found in a specific climatic zone.