Licchavi Lyceum


Licchavi Lyceum

Endogenetic and Exogenetic Forces

The Endogenetic and Exogenetic Forces are constantly shaping our Earth. The Earth is constantly undergoing changes and transformations, some of which are caused by internal processes and others by external forces. These changes help shape the planet and create the geological features we see today. There are two main categories of geological forces that cause these changes: endogenic forces and exogenic forces.

Endogenetic and Exogenetic Forces
Endogenetic and Exogenetic Forces

The endogenic forces are mainly land building forces and the exogenic processes are mainly land wearing forces. Exogenic processes can cause existing landforms to be destroyed by weathering and erosional processes, these forces are often called as “destructive forces.” Important exogenic processes include wasting, erosion, deposition, and weathering. The atmosphere, which is influenced by the sun’s primary energy as well as the gradient that tectonic forces create, provides the exogenic forces with their energy. Over the course of hundreds or millions of years, exogenic factors produce changes that are discernible. Examples include winds, rivers, and glaciers etc.

Endogenic Forces

Endogenetic forces, also known as internal forces, originate from within the Earth’s crust and mantle. These forces are primarily responsible for the creation of landforms through processes such as tectonic activity and volcanic eruptions.

Flex Box Example

"Endogenetic forces come from within the Earth, fueled by the immense heat and energy in the planet's interior."

MCQ on Endogenetic Forces

Types of endogenetic forces:

Tectonic Activity

This involves the movement and interaction of tectonic plates, which make up the Earth’s lithosphere. Tectonic activity leads to processes like continental drift, the formation of mountain ranges through collision or divergence of plates, and the occurrence of earthquakes along faults.

Volcanic Activity

Volcanic eruptions result from the movement of magma from the Earth’s mantle to the surface. When magma erupts onto the surface, it cools and solidifies, forming volcanic landforms such as mountains, lava plateaus, and volcanic cones.

Exogenic forces

Exogenetic forces are the external forces, that operate on the Earth’s surface due to external factors like weather, climate, and erosion agents. These forces are primarily responsible for modifying and sculpting the landforms created by endogenetic forces.

Flex Box Example

"Exogenetic forces act on the Earth's surface and are largely driven by the atmosphere and the sun's energy."

Key components of exogenetic forces are:


Weathering refers to the breakdown of rocks and minerals on the Earth’s surface due to exposure to atmospheric factors such as rain, wind, temperature changes, and biological activity. It can lead to the disintegration of rocks into smaller particles.


Erosion is the transport of weathered materials (sediments) from one place to another by natural agents such as water (rivers, streams, waves), wind, ice (glaciers), and gravity (mass wasting). Erosion gradually wears down landforms and reshapes the Earth’s surface.


Deposition occurs when eroded materials settle and accumulate in a new location. This process is responsible for the formation of various landforms such as river deltas, alluvial fans, sand dunes, and sedimentary layers.

MCQ on Exogenetic Forces

Both endogenic and exogenic forces are essential for shaping the Earth and creating the geological features we see today. Endogenic forces are more powerful and can have a larger impact on the planet, while exogenic forces tend to have a more gradual effect over time.

Read: Geography