Licchavi Lyceum


Licchavi Lyceum

European Penetration into India

European Penetration into India refers to the colonization of India by European powers, primarily the Portuguese, Dutch, French, and British, during the 16th to 18th centuries.

The Portuguese were the first Europeans to establish a significant presence in India, arriving in the early 16th century and establishing a chain of trading posts along the western coast. The Dutch and French arrived in the 17th century and established their own colonies, with the British arriving in the 18th century and ultimately gaining control over the majority of India through the British East India Company.

This period of European penetration brought significant changes to India, including the introduction of Christianity, the development of a new system of trade and commerce, and the establishment of a new political and administrative system. It also had a profound impact on Indian culture and society, as European ideas and values were introduced and blended with traditional Indian beliefs and practices.

Arrival of Portuguese 1498: The arrival of Vasco Da Gama at Calicut started a new chapter in the Indian history. They were great naval power but could not invade deep in the Indian Territory. 

Vasco Da Gama travelled with the swing of Monsoon wind and carried Pepper with him. The trade was quite profitable. 

The East India Company (English) was established in the year 1600.  The company sent Hawkins to the court of Mughal emperor Jahangir and secured a permission to set up the first factory at Surat.

The East India Company acquired a charter from the ruler of England, Queen Elizabeth I, This meant that no other trading group in England could compete with the East India Company.

Arrival of Danish in India: In 1616 AD, the Danish East India Company was formed and they established their settlements at Tranquebar in Tamil Nadu (1620) and Serampur in Bengal.

The first English factory was set up on the banks of the river Hugli in 1651.

It also persuaded the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb to issue a Farman granting the Company the right to trade duty free. No such facility was available to other Indian companies.

Jahangir granted the Farman to British to establish factory in India.

A Farman by Farrunksiyar granted East India Company the permission to have duty free trade in India.

In conclusion, the European penetration into India was a significant turning point in the history of the country and had far-reaching impacts that are still felt today.