Licchavi Lyceum


Licchavi Lyceum

Give a brief account of the principal land biomes and their latitudinal distribution.

Land biomes are major ecological regions characterized by distinctive climate, vegetation, and organisms. They are distributed across the Earth’s surface in relation to latitude and other environmental factors. Here’s a brief account of the principal land biomes and their latitudinal distribution:

  1. Tundra Biome:
    • Description: The tundra biome is found in polar regions, primarily in the Arctic and high mountain ranges. It features extremely cold temperatures, permafrost (permanently frozen soil), and a short growing season.
    • Latitudinal Distribution: Tundra biomes are located at high latitudes, typically above the Arctic Circle in the Northern Hemisphere and in similar regions in the Southern Hemisphere.
  2. Taiga (Boreal Forest) Biome:
    • Description: The taiga biome consists of dense coniferous forests with cold winters and relatively short growing seasons. It is characterized by evergreen trees like spruce, pine, and fir.
    • Latitudinal Distribution: Taiga is primarily found in the subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, between the tundra and temperate deciduous forests, extending southward in Canada, Russia, and Scandinavia.
  3. Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome:
    • Description: This biome features deciduous trees that shed their leaves in the fall. It has distinct seasons with cold winters and moderate summers.
    • Latitudinal Distribution: Temperate deciduous forests are mainly located in the temperate zones, typically between 30° and 50° latitude in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
  4. Temperate Grassland (Prairie) Biome:
    • Description: These are vast, flat grasslands with fertile soils and a climate characterized by hot summers and cold winters. They are known for their grasses and herbaceous vegetation.
    • Latitudinal Distribution: Temperate grasslands are generally found between 30° and 50° latitude in both hemispheres. Examples include the Great Plains in North America and the pampas in South America.
  5. Tropical Rainforest Biome:
    • Description: Tropical rainforests are lush, diverse ecosystems with high temperatures, abundant rainfall, and year-round growing seasons. They support an incredibly rich variety of plant and animal species.
    • Latitudinal Distribution: Tropical rainforests are situated near the equator, primarily between 23.5°N and 23.5°S latitude, in regions of Central and South America, Africa, Southeast Asia, and Oceania.
  6. Tropical Savanna (Grassland) Biome:
    • Description: Savannas are characterized by grasslands with scattered trees and distinct wet and dry seasons. They are known for large herbivores and grazing animals.
    • Latitudinal Distribution: Tropical savannas are typically found between 10° and 20° latitude north and south of the equator in regions of Africa, South America, and Australia.
  7. Desert Biome:
    • Description: Deserts are arid regions with minimal rainfall and extreme temperature variations between day and night. Vegetation is often adapted to conserve water.
    • Latitudinal Distribution: Deserts can be found at various latitudes, but they are often located around 30°N and 30°S latitude, known as subtropical deserts. Examples include the Sahara, Sonoran, and Atacama deserts.
  8. Mediterranean Biome:
    • Description: Mediterranean climates feature mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers. Vegetation includes drought-resistant shrubs and trees like olives and cork oaks.
    • Latitudinal Distribution: Mediterranean biomes are typically located between 30° and 40° latitude in regions around the Mediterranean Sea, California, and parts of Australia and South Africa.
  9. Chaparral (Shrubland) Biome:
    • Description: Chaparral regions have hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. They feature shrubby vegetation and are prone to wildfires.
    • Latitudinal Distribution: Chaparral biomes are primarily found between 30° and 40° latitude in regions of California, the Mediterranean Basin, and parts of South Australia and Chile.

These are the principal land biomes and their latitudinal distributions, each characterized by its unique climate, vegetation, and ecological adaptations.