Licchavi Lyceum


Licchavi Lyceum


Reflection of Light:

Reflection is the process by which light bounces off a surface. When light strikes a smooth, flat surface such as a mirror, it reflects off the surface at the same angle at which it hit the surface, following the law of reflection.

Laws of Reflection:

  1. The angle of incidence (the angle between the incoming light and the surface) is equal to the angle of reflection (the angle between the reflected light and the surface).
  2. The incident ray, the reflected ray, and the normal to the surface at the point of incidence all lie in the same plane.

Refraction of Light:

Refraction is the bending of light as it passes through a medium of a different refractive index, such as air to glass. When light passes from one medium to another with a different refractive index, it changes direction and bends. This bending of light is known as refraction.

Total Internal Reflection:

Total internal reflection occurs when light enters a medium with a higher refractive index, and the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle. In this case, all of the light is reflected back into the original medium, and none of it passes into the second medium. This phenomenon is the basis for fiber optic communication.

Spherical Mirrors:

Spherical mirrors are mirrors with a curved surface that is part of a sphere. There are two types of spherical mirrors: concave mirrors and convex mirrors. Concave mirrors reflect light inward, and are used to form an image by converging light. Convex mirrors reflect light outward, and are used to provide a wider field of view.


Lenses are optical devices that refract light to form an image. There are two types of lenses: converging lenses and diverging lenses. Converging lenses, such as convex lenses, bend light inward and are used to magnify objects. Diverging lenses, such as concave lenses, bend light outward and are used to reduce the size of an object.

Lenses can be used in a variety of applications, including eyeglasses, cameras, and projectors. The properties of lenses, such as their shape, size, and refractive index, can be adjusted to produce the desired image.