Licchavi Lyceum


Licchavi Lyceum

NCERT Class 7 Geography Solutions : Contemporary India

1. Answer the following questions.

(i) What is an ecosystem?

Ans: An ecosystem refers to a community of living organisms (plants, animals, and microorganisms) interacting with each other and with their non-living (abiotic) environment in a particular area. It involves a complex web of relationships and interactions among organisms and their surroundings. Ecosystems can vary greatly in size and can be as small as a pond or as vast as a forest or an ocean.


(ii) What do you mean by the natural environment?

Ans: The natural environment encompasses all the living and non-living components of the Earth that exist naturally and have not been significantly altered or influenced by human activities. It includes elements such as air, water, soil, plants, animals, and various natural processes that shape the Earth’s surface and sustain life.

(iii) Which are the major components of the environment?

Ans: The major components of the environment are:

Atmosphere: The layer of gases surrounding the Earth, primarily composed of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other trace gases.

Hydrosphere: All the water on Earth’s surface, including oceans, rivers, lakes, groundwater, and even water vapor in the atmosphere.

Lithosphere: The solid outermost layer of the Earth, comprising the Earth’s crust and uppermost part of the mantle.

Biosphere: The zone of Earth where life exists, including all living organisms and their interactions with the other components of the environment.

(iv) Give four examples of human-made environments.

Ans: Four examples of human-made environments are:

Urban Areas: Cities, towns, and other urban settlements created by humans with buildings, roads, and infrastructure.

Agricultural Fields: Areas used for farming and cultivation of crops or raising livestock.

Industrial Zones: Areas with factories, manufacturing plants, and industrial facilities.

Artificial Reservoirs: Man-made water bodies created by constructing dams for water storage or power generation.

(v) What is the lithosphere?

Ans: The lithosphere refers to the rigid outer layer of the Earth, including the Earth’s crust and the uppermost part of the mantle. It is characterized by solid rocks and minerals and forms the Earth’s solid surface. The lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates, which float on the semi-fluid asthenosphere below and are responsible for the movement of the Earth’s continents and the occurrence of earthquakes and volcanic activities.

(vi) Which are the two major components of the biotic environment?

Ans: The two major components of the biotic environment are:

Flora: All the plant species present in a particular ecosystem.

Fauna: All the animal species present in a particular ecosystem.

(vii) What is the biosphere?

Ans: The biosphere refers to the zone of the Earth where life exists. It includes all living organisms, including plants, animals, and microorganisms, and their interactions with the other components of the environment such as the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. The biosphere is a dynamic and interconnected system where energy and nutrients flow through various food chains and ecosystems, supporting life on Earth. It extends from the depths of the oceans to the highest mountains and plays a crucial role in maintaining the delicate balance of life on our planet.

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