Licchavi Lyceum


Licchavi Lyceum


The NTCA (National Tiger Conservation Authority) is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) in India. It was established in 2005 following the amendment to the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. The NTCA is responsible for the management of tiger reserves in the country, including the identification of critical tiger habitats, formulation of conservation plans and guidelines, and monitoring of the implementation of conservation measures.


Role of NTCA

India is home to the largest population of tigers in the world. According to the latest tiger census conducted in 2018, the country had 2,967 tigers, which was a 33% increase from the previous census in 2014. The NTCA played a significant role in achieving this success by working closely with the state governments and various stakeholders to conserve and protect tiger habitats.

The NTCA is responsible for the management of 51 tiger reserves in the country, covering an area of over 71,000 square kilometers. These reserves are divided into four categories, namely, core, buffer, transition, and multiple-use zones.

The core zones are the most critical areas for tiger conservation, and human activities are restricted in these areas. The buffer zones are areas surrounding the core zones, where human activities are regulated to minimize the impact on the core zones. The transition zones are areas between the buffer zones and the multiple-use zones, where limited human activities are permitted. The multiple-use zones are areas where human activities such as grazing and collection of non-timber forest products are allowed, subject to certain regulations.

Plans and Policies

The NTCA has formulated various conservation plans and guidelines to ensure the effective management of tiger reserves in the country. One such plan is the Tiger Conservation Plan (TCP), which is prepared for each tiger reserve based on the local conditions and threats. The TCPs include measures for habitat improvement, prey base augmentation, anti-poaching activities, and eco-development activities. The NTCA also provides financial assistance to the state governments for the implementation of these plans.

The NTCA also plays a vital role in monitoring the implementation of conservation measures in tiger reserves. It conducts periodic inspections of the reserves to assess their status and identify areas that need improvement. The NTCA also uses advanced technologies such as remote sensing and GIS for monitoring the changes in tiger habitats and identifying potential threats.

Additional Measures of NTCA

In addition to the conservation of tigers, the NTCA also focuses on the conservation of other wildlife species in tiger reserves. The reserves are home to several endangered and threatened species such as leopards, elephants, and sloth bears. The NTCA has formulated guidelines for the management of these species, and the conservation efforts are integrated with the tiger conservation programs.

The NTCA also recognizes the role of local communities in tiger conservation. The eco-development activities included in the TCPs aim to involve local communities in conservation efforts and provide them with alternative livelihood options. The NTCA also encourages the formation of Village Tiger Committees (VTCs) to involve local communities in monitoring the tiger population and identifying potential threats.

The NTCA has also initiated several research and monitoring programs to enhance the knowledge of tiger ecology and behavior. The All India Tiger Monitoring Program (AITMP) is a nationwide program that uses camera traps to estimate the tiger population and monitor their movements. The NTCA also collaborates with research institutions and NGOs to conduct studies on various aspects of tiger ecology and behavior.


In conclusion, the National Tiger Conservation Authority plays a crucial role in the conservation of tigers and other wildlife species in India. Its efforts have contributed significantly to the increase in the tiger population in the country. The NTCA’s focus on community participation, scientific research, and monitoring has helped in the effective management of tiger reserves. However, there are still several challenges that need to be addressed, such as human-wildlife conflicts.

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