Licchavi Lyceum


Licchavi Lyceum

Poverty NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Indian Economic Development

Poverty NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Indian Economic Development

1. Define poverty.

Ans: Poverty is a condition characterized by the lack of basic human needs, including food, shelter, clothing, and access to education and healthcare. Individuals or communities experiencing poverty often face economic hardship, social exclusion, and a diminished quality of life. Poverty can be measured in terms of income levels, with those falling below a certain income threshold considered poor. Additionally, multidimensional measures consider various aspects such as education, health, and standard of living to provide a comprehensive understanding of poverty.

2. What is meant by ‘Food for Work’ programme?

Ans: The ‘Food for Work’ program is a type of employment generation and poverty alleviation initiative where individuals, particularly those in economically disadvantaged areas, are provided with food in exchange for participating in public works projects. The program aims to address both food security and unemployment issues simultaneously. Participants engage in community development projects such as road construction, water conservation, and afforestation, and in return, they receive food items or meals. The program serves the dual purpose of providing immediate nutritional support to vulnerable populations while fostering infrastructural development and employment opportunities.

3. State an example each of self-employment in rural and urban areas.

  • Rural Area Example: Agriculture and allied activities often provide opportunities for self-employment in rural areas. For instance, a farmer who owns and works on a small piece of land, cultivating crops or rearing livestock, is engaged in self-employment in a rural setting.
  • Urban Area Example: Small-scale entrepreneurship in urban areas is common for self-employment. An individual running a small retail shop, such as a grocery store or a neighborhood service business like a local repair shop, is an example of self-employment in an urban context.

4. How can the creation of income-earning assets address the problem of poverty?

Ans: The creation of income-earning assets is crucial for poverty alleviation, as it empowers individuals and communities to generate sustainable incomes. Here are ways in which this can address the problem of poverty:

  • Increased Productivity: Income-earning assets, such as agricultural land, machinery, or tools, enhance productivity. Farmers with access to modern equipment and improved farming practices can increase their crop yields, leading to higher income.
  • Entrepreneurship Opportunities: Providing resources and support for small businesses and entrepreneurship creates income-generating opportunities. This includes funding, training, and access to markets for individuals to start or expand their businesses.
  • Education and Skill Development: Investing in education and skill development creates human capital, an invaluable income-earning asset. Educated and skilled individuals are better equipped to secure higher-paying jobs or start successful businesses.
  • Access to Credit: Facilitating access to credit allows individuals to invest in income-generating activities. This can include loans for agricultural inputs, small businesses, or home-based enterprises, enabling economic growth and poverty reduction.
  • Asset Ownership: Ownership of assets like land, housing, or livestock provides a foundation for economic stability. Individuals can leverage these assets to access credit, generate income, and improve their overall standard of living.

In summary, creating income-earning assets addresses poverty by fostering economic opportunities, improving productivity, and empowering individuals to break the cycle of poverty through sustainable income generation.

5. Briefly explain the three-dimensional attack on poverty adopted by the government.

Ans: The three-dimensional attack on poverty adopted by the government refers to a comprehensive strategy aimed at addressing poverty from multiple angles. The dimensions include:

  • Economic Growth: Promoting overall economic growth is a key component. By implementing policies that stimulate economic development, the government aims to create job opportunities, increase income levels, and reduce poverty.
  • Social Inclusion: Social inclusion involves ensuring that marginalized and vulnerable sections of society have access to essential services, resources, and opportunities. This includes measures to improve education, healthcare, and social infrastructure to uplift the socio-economic status of disadvantaged communities.
  • Direct Intervention: This dimension involves direct interventions and targeted welfare programs to provide immediate relief to those living in poverty. These programs may include direct financial assistance, subsidized food programs, and employment generation schemes to address the immediate needs of the impoverished population.

The three-dimensional approach recognizes that poverty is a complex and multifaceted issue that requires a combination of economic, social, and direct intervention measures to achieve meaningful and sustainable results.

6. What programs has the government adopted to help the elderly people and poor and destitute women?

Ans: The government has implemented various programs to support the elderly, poor, and destitute women, including:

  • Old Age Pension Schemes: The government provides old-age pensions to elderly citizens to ensure financial support during their retirement years.
  • National Social Assistance Program (NSAP): NSAP includes multiple schemes targeting vulnerable groups, including the Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS) for the elderly.
  • Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS): ICDS includes initiatives like Anganwadi centers that provide nutritional support, healthcare, and pre-school education to pregnant women, nursing mothers, and children.
  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY): This program provides financial assistance to pregnant women and lactating mothers to meet their nutritional and health needs.
  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA): MGNREGA aims to provide employment opportunities to rural households, including women, to enhance their economic well-being.
  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY): PMJDY focuses on financial inclusion, providing banking services to poor and marginalized populations, including women.

These programs reflect the government’s commitment to addressing the specific needs of elderly individuals, poor citizens, and destitute women, aiming to improve their socio-economic conditions and overall well-being.

7. Is there any relationship between unemployment and poverty? Explain.

Ans: Yes, there is a strong relationship between unemployment and poverty. Unemployment is a significant contributor to poverty, and the two issues are interconnected in the following ways:

  • Income Source: Employment is the primary source of income for many individuals and households. When people are unemployed, their income is significantly reduced or nonexistent, leading to financial hardship and an increased likelihood of falling into poverty.
  • Access to Basic Needs: Unemployment can hinder access to basic needs such as food, shelter, and healthcare. Without a stable income, individuals and families may struggle to afford essential goods and services, increasing the risk of poverty.
  • Psychosocial Impact: Unemployment can have adverse psychosocial effects, including stress, anxiety, and a sense of social exclusion. These factors can contribute to a decline in mental and physical well-being, further exacerbating the challenges associated with poverty.
  • Inter-generational Impact: Persistent unemployment within a family can lead to a cycle of poverty, affecting not only the current generation but also future generations. Lack of access to quality education and opportunities for skill development can perpetuate the cycle.

Addressing unemployment through policies that promote economic growth, job creation, and skill development is crucial for poverty reduction. Conversely, poverty alleviation measures contribute to enhancing employability and reducing the impact of unemployment on vulnerable populations.

8. What is the difference between relative and absolute poverty?

Ans: The difference between relative and absolute poverty lies in how poverty is defined and measured:

  • Absolute Poverty: Absolute poverty is a straightforward measure based on a fixed standard of living. It assesses whether individuals or households have the necessary resources to meet their basic needs, such as food, shelter, and clothing. The threshold for absolute poverty is often set at a specific income level or the ability to afford a minimum basket of essential goods and services. If a person falls below this threshold, they are considered absolutely poor.
  • Relative Poverty: Relative poverty, on the other hand, is a measure that considers an individual’s economic position relative to the rest of the society. It takes into account income disparities and social inequalities within a specific community or country. Individuals are considered relatively poor if their income and living standards are significantly lower than the average or median levels within their society.

In summary, absolute poverty focuses on meeting basic needs, while relative poverty emphasizes the social and economic disparities between different segments of the population. Both concepts are essential for a comprehensive understanding of poverty and guide policymakers in developing effective poverty alleviation strategies.

Q9. Suppose you are from a poor family and you wish to get help from the government to set up a petty shop. Under which scheme will you apply for assistance and why?

Ans: If I were from a poor family and wanted assistance from the government to set up a petty shop, one of the schemes I could consider applying for is the Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY).

Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana (PMMY):

  • Objective: PMMY is a government scheme aimed at providing financial support to small and micro enterprises, including petty shops, to enable them to start, grow, and expand their businesses.
  • Types of Loans: The scheme provides loans under three categories:
    1. Shishu (up to ₹50,000)
    2. Kishor (from ₹50,001 to ₹5,00,000)
    3. Tarun (from ₹5,00,001 to ₹10,00,000)
  • Collateral-Free Loans: Loans under PMMY are collateral-free, making it accessible for individuals who may not have substantial assets to pledge as security.
  • Support for Various Sectors: The scheme supports a wide range of income-generating activities, including setting up petty shops, small manufacturing units, service enterprises, and more.
  • Facilitates Entrepreneurship: PMMY aims to promote entrepreneurship, particularly among those who may be economically disadvantaged, by providing financial assistance and support for small business ventures.

By applying for assistance under Pradhan Mantri Mudra Yojana, I could potentially access the necessary funds to start a petty shop without the burden of collateral, fostering economic self-sufficiency and contributing to poverty alleviation.

Q10. Illustrate the difference between rural and urban poverty. Is it correct to say that poverty has shifted from rural to urban areas? Use the trends in poverty ratio to support your answer.

Ans: Illustration of Rural and Urban Poverty:

  • Rural Poverty:
    • Characteristics: Rural poverty is often characterized by agrarian dependence, lack of infrastructure, limited access to education and healthcare, and reliance on traditional occupations.
    • Occupation: Many individuals in rural areas depend on agriculture and allied activities for their livelihoods.
    • Income Sources: Income sources in rural areas may be seasonal, subject to weather conditions and agricultural cycles.
  • Urban Poverty:
    • Characteristics: Urban poverty is associated with informal employment, inadequate housing, slums, and challenges related to access to basic services.
    • Occupation: Urban residents may be engaged in informal sectors like street vending, daily wage labor, and other non-formal occupations.
    • Income Sources: Income in urban areas may be more diverse but often inconsistent and subject to urban living costs.

Shift in Poverty:

Historically, poverty has been more prevalent in rural areas due to factors like agrarian distress, limited infrastructure, and dependence on traditional livelihoods. However, there has been a noticeable shift in recent years, and urban poverty has become a significant concern. Urbanization, informalisation of labor, and the influx of rural migrants to urban areas have contributed to the rise of urban poverty.

Trends in Poverty Ratios:

To support this assertion, one can look at the trends in poverty ratios. While rural poverty remains a significant challenge, urban poverty has been on the rise due to factors like rapid urbanization, unequal distribution of resources, and challenges in providing adequate employment opportunities and housing in urban centers.

Therefore, it is correct to say that there has been a shift in the focus of poverty from predominantly rural to a more balanced concern that includes urban areas. This shift is reflected in the changing trends in poverty ratios, underlining the importance of addressing poverty in both rural and urban contexts.

Q11. Explain the concept of relative poverty with the help of the population below poverty line in some states of India.

Ans: Concept of Relative Poverty with Population Below Poverty Line in Some States of India:

Relative poverty is a concept that evaluates poverty in relation to the economic standing of the broader society. Instead of setting an absolute income threshold, relative poverty considers how individuals or households compare to the average income or living standards within their specific context.

Illustration using States A and B:

  • State A:
    • Average Income: State A has an average income that surpasses the national average.
    • Population Below Poverty Line: Despite the higher average income, a significant portion of the population in State A falls below the poverty line.
    • Relative Poverty Context: In relative terms, individuals in State A may be considered relatively poor compared to their wealthier counterparts within the state.
  • State B:
    • Average Income: State B has a lower average income compared to the national average.
    • Population Below Poverty Line: The population below the poverty line in State B may face absolute economic hardships, but in relative terms, their situation may be less severe compared to individuals in State A.
    • Relative Poverty Context: Individuals in State B could be considered relatively less poor within their economic context.

Key Aspects:

  1. Contextual Comparison: Relative poverty emphasizes that poverty assessment should consider the economic context in which individuals or households reside.
  2. Regional Disparities: India’s states exhibit significant economic variations, leading to regional disparities in living standards. Relative poverty helps capture these nuances.
  3. Policy Implications: Understanding relative poverty is crucial for policymakers to design interventions that are specific to the economic conditions of each state. It emphasizes the need for tailored and context-specific poverty alleviation strategies.
  4. Social and Economic Dimensions: Relative poverty goes beyond income disparities, encompassing broader social and economic factors that influence the standard of living.

In conclusion, while the population below the poverty line remains a key metric, interpreting this data through the lens of relative poverty provides a more nuanced understanding. It guides policymakers in developing more targeted and context-specific poverty reduction strategies that consider the unique economic conditions of different states in India.

Q12. Suppose you are a resident of a village, suggest a few measures to tackle the problem of poverty.

Ans: As a resident of a village, here are a few measures that could be suggested to tackle the problem of poverty:

  1. Promoting Sustainable Agriculture:
    • Encourage the adoption of sustainable and modern agricultural practices.
    • Facilitate access to high-quality seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation methods.
    • Promote diversification of crops to ensure a stable income throughout the year.
  2. Skill Development and Vocational Training:
    • Establish skill development centers to provide training in various trades and vocations.
    • Foster partnerships with local industries to create job opportunities for skilled individuals.
    • Empower villagers with the skills needed for self-employment and entrepreneurship.
  3. Rural Entrepreneurship:
    • Facilitate the establishment of small-scale industries and businesses in the village.
    • Support local entrepreneurs with access to credit, market linkages, and business development guidance.
    • Encourage the production of traditional crafts and goods for sale in local and wider markets.
  4. Infrastructure Development:
    • Advocate for improved infrastructure, including better roads, electricity, and water supply.
    • Enhance connectivity to nearby towns and markets to facilitate the movement of goods.
    • Invest in the development of community facilities like schools, healthcare centers, and community halls.
  5. Social Security Programs:
    • Promote awareness and participation in government social security schemes.
    • Facilitate the enrollment of eligible individuals in programs like the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) for guaranteed employment.
    • Ensure that vulnerable populations, such as the elderly and widows, have access to social assistance programs.
  6. Access to Financial Services:
    • Facilitate the establishment of banking and financial institutions in the village.
    • Promote financial literacy programs to educate villagers about savings, investments, and access to credit.
    • Encourage the use of microfinance initiatives for small-scale enterprises.
  7. Education and Healthcare:
    • Advocate for the improvement of educational facilities, including schools and vocational training centers.
    • Promote health and hygiene awareness programs.
    • Facilitate regular health check-ups and immunization drives.
  8. Community Participation and Empowerment:
    • Encourage active participation in local governance and decision-making processes.
    • Establish self-help groups for women and marginalized communities.
    • Foster a sense of community ownership and responsibility for sustainable development.
  9. Environmental Conservation:
    • Promote sustainable environmental practices to protect natural resources.
    • Implement water harvesting and conservation measures.
    • Encourage afforestation and sustainable agricultural practices.
  10. Technology Adoption:
    • Introduce and promote the use of technology for farming, communication, and market access.
    • Explore digital platforms for selling agricultural produce and handicrafts.

These measures, when implemented collectively, can contribute to poverty alleviation and the overall development of the village. It is essential to involve the community in the planning and execution of these initiatives to ensure their sustainability and effectiveness.