The statement that “Public Management takes ‘what’ and ‘why’ from Public Administration and ‘how’ from Business Management” highlights the interdisciplinary nature of public management and its reliance on both public administration and business management concepts. Let’s elaborate on this concept:
‘What’ from Public Administration:
- Policy Formulation and Analysis: Public management draws from public administration by focusing on the ‘what’ in terms of government policies and programs. It involves the analysis of policies to understand their objectives, rationale, and intended outcomes.
- Public Interest: Public management emphasizes the importance of serving the public interest and aligning government actions with the needs and preferences of citizens. This is a fundamental aspect of public administration that informs ‘what’ government should do.
- Legal and Ethical Framework: Public management considers the legal and ethical dimensions of government actions, ensuring that they adhere to established laws and ethical principles. Public administration provides the foundation for understanding these regulatory aspects.
‘Why’ from Public Administration:
- Public Value and Accountability: Public management is concerned with ‘why’ certain policies or programs are necessary to create public value and address societal challenges. It places a strong emphasis on accountability to ensure that government actions are justified and serve the public interest.
- Stakeholder Engagement: Understanding ‘why’ involves engaging with various stakeholders, including citizens, interest groups, and policymakers, to assess their needs, expectations, and the reasons behind government actions. Public administration principles guide this stakeholder engagement process.
- Resource Allocation: Public management considers ‘why’ resources should be allocated to specific programs or initiatives based on cost-benefit analysis, program evaluation, and performance measurement—concepts rooted in public administration practices.
‘How’ from Business Management:
- Efficiency and Effectiveness: The ‘how’ in public management draws from business management principles to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of government operations. It focuses on optimizing resource utilization and achieving desired outcomes.
- Strategic Planning: Business management techniques, such as strategic planning, are applied to government agencies to set clear objectives, allocate resources strategically, and align activities with overarching goals.
- Performance Management: Public management incorporates performance management tools and methodologies to assess, monitor, and enhance the performance of government programs and services, similar to the private sector’s focus on performance measurement.
- Innovation and Quality Improvement: Like business management, public management encourages innovation and continuous quality improvement to deliver better services and outcomes for citizens.
In summary, public management is an interdisciplinary field that integrates concepts and practices from both public administration and business management. It takes the ‘what’ and ‘why’ from public administration by focusing on policy analysis, public interest, and accountability. It also incorporates the ‘how’ from business management by emphasizing efficiency, effectiveness, strategic planning, performance management, and innovation in the delivery of public services. This blending of approaches helps government agencies and organizations achieve their missions while ensuring transparency, accountability, and responsiveness to the needs of citizens.