Licchavi Lyceum


Licchavi Lyceum

RAS Mains 2018 Paper 1 Solution

RAS Mains 2018 Paper 1 Solution

Unit I (75 Marks)

Part A (15 words, 2 Marks)

Q1. Which three sacred texts of ancient India are termed ‘Prasthan Trayi’ ?

Ans: The Bhagavad Gita, Upanishads, and the Brahma Sutras are the ‘Prasthan Trayi’. These are the sacred texts of ancient India’s philosophical foundation.

Q2. Briefly describe the “Arjun’s Penance” sculpture ?

Ans: “Arjuna’s Penance” depicts a scene from Mahabharata. Arjuna seeks Shiva’s aid for war through penance. The intricate relief, animals, and sages are also present.

Arjun Penance sculpture
Arjun Penance sculpture

Q3. Describe the text “Vishva Vallabh” in brief. 

Ans: It was a devotional text composed by Chakrpani Mishra. He was the scholar in the court of Maharana Pratap.

Q4. Who were Doongji and Jawaharji?

Ans: Doongji and Jawaharji were from the eastern Sikar region. They emerged as notable and revered insurgents prior to the 1857 war. They valiantly resisted the British forces of Bikaner and Jodhpur.

Q5. Define the European Enlightenment of 19th century. 

Ans: The 19th-century European Enlightenment was an intellectual movement that valued principles like reasoning, science, technology, and disciplines in society.

European Enlightenment RAS Mains 2018 Paper 1 Solution
European Enlightenment

Part – B (50 Words, 5 Marks)

Q6. Write a short note on bronze images found from Harappan sites. 

Ans: Bronze images (like dancing girl) from Harappan sites highlight their skilled metallurgy. These creations provide insights into the civilization’s craftsmanship, artistry, and aspects of daily life during that era.

Bronze images found at various Harappan sites, such as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in Pakistan, and Lothal, Dholavira, and Kalibangan in India, provide evidence of the civilization’s metallurgical prowess and artistic expression. These artifacts, ranging from tiny figurines to elaborate sculptures, contribute to our understanding of the Harappan people’s cultural practices and technological achievements.

Indus Valley Location RAS Mains 2018 Paper 1 Solution
Indus Valley Location

Q7. Bharatendu Harishchandra was the precursor of Modern trends in Hindi literature. Discuss. 

Ans: Bharatendu Harishchandra was a 19th-century literary figure. He pioneered modern trends in Hindi literature. Advocating social reform, he promoted prose and drama, veering from traditional poetry. He is often referred to as the “Father of Modern Hindi Literature” due to his significant contributions that marked a departure from traditional norms. His influence can be observed in several aspects:

  1. Promotion of Vernacular Literature: Bharatendu emphasized the use of vernacular languages like Hindi over classical languages for literary expression. This shift encouraged wider accessibility and contributed to the growth of Hindi literature.
  2. Social Reform: His writings addressed social issues and advocated for reform. His plays and poems tackled subjects such as women’s rights, education, untouchability, and widow remarriage, aligning literature with social change.
  3. New Literary Forms: Bharatendu introduced new literary forms like short stories, essays, and editorials, which were well-suited to address contemporary issues concisely.
  4. Contemporary Themes: He shifted the focus from mythological and religious themes to contemporary subjects. His works dealt with the challenges faced by society, reflecting the changing times.
  5. Realism: He brought an element of realism into Hindi literature by portraying everyday life, struggles, and aspirations of common people.
  6. Cultural Identity: Bharatendu sought to strengthen the cultural identity of Hindi speakers, encouraging the use of Hindi as a medium of expression that represented the common people’s thoughts and emotions.
  7. Theatre and Drama: He rejuvenated Hindi theatre with his plays, making it a platform for social commentary and entertainment.
  8. Language Development: Bharatendu worked to standardize the Hindi language, contributing to its growth and recognition.

His literary magazine “Bharatendu” served as a platform for the spread of modern literary ideas and became a significant medium for communication and exchange of thoughts among Hindi writers. Bharatendu’s legacy set the stage for subsequent generations of Hindi writers to explore contemporary themes and experiment with new forms, laying the foundation for the modern Hindi literature that emerged in the 20th century.

Q8. Describe the method used by the Molela artists in preparing the terracotta objects. 

Ans: Molela artists craft terracotta objects using a traditional coiling technique. They shape clay coils into desired forms, joining them seamlessly. After drying, the objects are polished and detailed, and then fired in a kiln. This process results in intricate and vibrant terracotta artistry.

Molela artists in preparing the terracotta objects (2) RAS Mains 2018 Paper 1 Solution


Q9. Discuss the causes of peasant unrest in the Jagirdari areas of Rajasthan. 

Ans: Peasant unrest in Rajasthan’s Jagirdari areas stemmed from various factors. Inequitable land revenue policies, oppressive taxes, and exploitative practices by jagirdars led to agrarian discontent. High rents, lack of tenant rights, and economic disparities fueled grievances, culminating in protests and rebellions for better conditions and rights.

Q10. What were the suggestions given by the State Reorganisation Commission to strengthen the National Unity?

Ans: The State Reorganisation Commission, established in 1953 in India, aimed to enhance national unity through territorial reorganization. Its recommendations included:

  1. Linguistic States: The commission advocated for the formation of states based on linguistic lines, to ensure cultural and linguistic cohesion.
  2. Administrative Efficiency: Redrawing boundaries to create states with viable administrative units, promoting efficient governance.
  3. Geographical Continuity: Grouping areas with geographic, economic, and cultural affinities to foster unity.
  4. Ethnic and Linguistic Homogeneity: Ensuring that states had a predominantly homogeneous population in terms of language and ethnicity.
  5. Economic Viability: States were suggested to have sufficient resources for self-sustainability.
  6. Protection of Minority Interests: Safeguarding minority rights in terms of language, culture, and representation.

These recommendations aimed to balance regional aspirations with national unity, leading to the reorganization of states along linguistic lines, a significant development in post-independence India.

Part -C (100 Words, 10 Marks)

Q11. The Indian Renaissance of the 19th century was the result of the challenges as well as the inspiration of the West. Examine critically.

Ans: The Indian Renaissance of the 19th century was undoubtedly influenced by Western ideas and challenges, but its nature and impact were multifaceted and complex. A critical examination reveals the following aspects:

Challenges from the West:

  1. Colonial Domination: British colonial rule brought economic exploitation and cultural subjugation, compelling Indians to reassess their cultural and social identity.
  2. Technological and Scientific Progress: Western advancements highlighted India’s technological lag, motivating some to seek modernization.
  3. Political Ideas: Western concepts of democracy, nationalism, and individual rights triggered a reevaluation of India’s political structure and governance.

Inspiration from the West:

  1. Enlightenment Values: Western Enlightenment ideals of reason, rationality, and individualism influenced Indian thinkers to question traditional norms and customs.
  2. Education and Printing Press: Western-style education and the printing press facilitated the spread of new ideas, fostering intellectual awakening.
  3. Social Reform: Western notions of equality, women’s rights, and social justice inspired Indian reformers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.
  4. Literary and Artistic Trends: The study of Western literature, philosophy, and art encouraged Indian writers, poets, and artists to experiment with new forms and themes.

Complex Dynamics:

  1. Selective Adaptation: Indians selectively adopted Western ideas that resonated with their cultural and social context, creating a unique blend of traditional and modern elements.
  2. Cultural and Religious Reinterpretation: The encounter with Western religious beliefs prompted Indians to reinterpret their own traditions, leading to religious reform movements.
  3. National Identity Formation: While the West inspired a sense of modernity, it also stimulated the rediscovery of India’s ancient heritage and pride in its past.

In conclusion, the Indian Renaissance was indeed shaped by Western challenges and inspiration, but its evolution was far from one-dimensional. Indians responded to these influences with a mix of adaptation, reinterpretation, and rejection, resulting in a complex transformation of society, culture, and thought. The Renaissance served as a critical juncture in India’s history, setting the stage for its struggle for independence and modernization in the 20th century.

Q12. Give an outline of the development of revolutionary freedom movement in 20th century India.


I. Background and Early Influences:

  • Introduction to revolutionary ideas through international events like the Russian Revolution and Irish uprising.
  • Growth of anti-colonial sentiments due to economic exploitation, political subjugation, and cultural suppression under British rule.

II. Formation of Revolutionary Groups:

  • Emergence of early revolutionary groups like Anushilan Samiti, Jugantar, and Ghadar Party.
  • Adoption of radical methods like armed resistance, bombings, and assassinations to challenge British rule.

III. Key Revolutionary Leaders:

  • Mention of notable leaders like Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad, Subhas Chandra Bose, and Rash Behari Bose.
  • Their roles in organizing and leading revolutionary activities against British rule.

IV. Contribution to Freedom Struggle:

  • Highlighting the revolutionary movement’s impact on raising awareness and inspiring mass participation.
  • Contribution to making the freedom struggle more militant and diverse in approach.

V. Revolutionary Events and Incidents:

  • Discussing significant events like the Kakori Conspiracy, Lahore Conspiracy Case, and bombing incidents.
  • Illustrating the intensity and commitment of revolutionaries in their fight for independence.

VI. Evolution and Decline:

  • Mentioning the evolution of the revolutionary movement from regional to national scales.
  • Factors contributing to the movement’s decline, including government crackdowns, arrests, and internal conflicts.

VII. Integration with Mainstream Freedom Movement:

  • Noting the eventual alignment of some revolutionaries with the nonviolent Gandhian movement.
  • Their collaborative efforts to achieve India’s independence through coordinated strategies.

VIII. Legacy and Impact:

  • Reflecting on the lasting impact of the revolutionary movement on India’s struggle for freedom.
  • Acknowledging their sacrifices and contribution to shaping the narrative of independence.

IX. Comparison with Nonviolent Movement:

  • Contrasting the methods and ideologies of revolutionaries with those of nonviolent leaders like Mahatma Gandhi.
  • Evaluating the role of both approaches in achieving India’s independence.

X. Conclusion:

  • Summarizing the significance of the revolutionary movement in the broader context of India’s fight for freedom.
  • Acknowledging the movement’s role in creating a diverse and resilient resistance against British colonialism.

Q13. Give a brief description of the following archaeological sites of Rajasthan (1) Bagore (2) Kalibangan (3) Ahar. 


  1. Bagore: Bagore is an archaeological site located in Udaipur, Rajasthan. It is renowned for the Bagore Ki Haveli, a historic mansion that now serves as a museum. The haveli showcases artifacts, paintings, costumes, and items depicting the cultural heritage of Mewar. The museum provides insights into the lifestyle, traditions, and history of the region.
  2. Kalibangan: Kalibangan is an important Harappan archaeological site situated in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan. It was one of the main cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. The site provides evidence of advanced urban planning, street systems, and fortified structures. Excavations have unearthed artifacts like pottery, tools, jewelry, and a unique ploughed field indicating agricultural practices.

  3. Ahar: Ahar is an archaeological site near Udaipur, Rajasthan, associated with the Chalcolithic and early Historic periods. It is known for its rich archaeological findings, including pottery, terracotta figurines, beads, and other artifacts. Ahar is considered an important cultural center that sheds light on the socio-economic and cultural aspects of ancient Rajasthan.


Each of these sites contributes to our understanding of different historical periods and aspects of Rajasthan’s heritage.

Q14. Discuss the impact of the World War II on international politics. 

Ans: World War II had a profound impact on international politics, reshaping global dynamics, alliances, and ideologies.

  1. Emergence of Superpowers: The war accelerated the decline of traditional powers like Britain and France, while the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers due to their economic and military strength.
  2. Formation of the United Nations: The devastation of the war led to the establishment of the United Nations in 1945, aiming to promote peace, security, and international cooperation through diplomacy and conflict resolution.
  3. Cold War and Ideological Divide: The ideological divide between the capitalist West, led by the US, and the communist East, led by the Soviet Union, resulted in the Cold War. This ideological confrontation shaped international politics for decades.
  4. Decolonization: The war weakened colonial powers, and the post-war period saw a wave of decolonization as former colonies sought independence, reshaping the global political map.
  5. NATO and Warsaw Pact: The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact were formed as military alliances, representing the division between Western and Eastern blocs during the Cold War.
  6. Division of Germany: The war led to the division of Germany into East and West Germany, with Berlin becoming a focal point of Cold War tensions.
  7. Arms Race and Nuclear Proliferation: The development and use of atomic bombs during the war triggered an arms race and nuclear proliferation, heightening global security concerns.
  8. European Integration: The war’s devastation prompted European leaders to seek ways to prevent future conflicts, leading to the formation of the European Union and efforts to foster economic and political cooperation.
  9. Shift in Colonial Dynamics: The war weakened colonial powers and changed their priorities. Many colonies seized the opportunity to push for independence.
  10. Human Rights and Humanitarianism: The war’s atrocities prompted global discussions on human rights, leading to the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the UN in 1948.
  11. Destruction and Reconstruction: The war caused massive destruction, necessitating extensive post-war reconstruction efforts and shaping economic and political policies.
  12. Globalization: The war accelerated globalization, increasing the interconnectedness of economies and cultures across the world.

In essence, World War II’s impact on international politics was far-reaching, influencing the power dynamics, alliances, and ideologies that shaped the post-war world order.

Unit II: 65 Marks

Part A (15 words, 2 Marks)

Q1. Write names of four countries in descending order to which maximum exports are made from India in year 2017-18.

Ans: In the fiscal year 2017-18, India’s maximum exports were made to the following four countries in descending order:

  1. United States
  2. United Arab Emirates
  3. China
  4. Hong Kong

Q2. What are the main objectives of Young Interns Programme in Rajasthan ?

Ans: Provide the job oriented training to the youth of Rajasthan.

Q3. What is fiscal consolidation ?

Ans: “Fiscal consolidation” refers to government efforts to reduce budget deficits and control public debt through expenditure cuts and revenue enhancement.

Q4. What is negative interest rate ?

Ans: “Negative interest rate” occurs when central banks charge banks to hold reserves, encouraging lending and spending to stimulate economic growth.

Q5. What is the main objective of i-Start Rajasthan?

Ans: The “i-Start Rajasthan” aims to promote entrepreneurship and innovation by providing support, mentoring, and resources to startups in Rajasthan.

Part – B (50 Words, 5 Marks)

Q6. Write the main features of Mukhyamantri Jal Swavlamban Abhiyan in Rajasthan.

Ans: “Mukhyamantri Jal Swavlamban Abhiyan” in Rajasthan aimed to enhance water conservation and management.

Key features:

  1. Rainwater Harvesting: Encouraging rainwater harvesting structures to recharge groundwater and increase water availability.
  2. Community Participation: Involving local communities to implement water conservation practices and develop water bodies.
  3. Check Dams and Anicuts: Building check dams, anicuts, and other small-scale water-holding structures to capture rainwater.
  4. Reviving Traditional Water Bodies: Restoring traditional water bodies like ponds and step wells to augment water storage.
  5. Watershed Development: Implementing watershed management techniques to prevent soil erosion and enhance water retention.
  6. Farm Ponds: Promoting construction of farm ponds to store rainwater for agricultural purposes.
  7. Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation: Encouraging efficient irrigation methods to conserve water in agriculture.
  8. Awareness and Education: Conducting awareness campaigns to educate communities about water conservation practices.
  9. Technology Adoption: Integrating modern technologies for efficient water resource management.
  10. Government Support: Providing financial assistance, technical guidance, and incentives to promote water conservation efforts.

Q7. Give names of six major initiatives taken by Rajasthan Government to improve health indicators in the state.

Ans: There are are six major health-related initiatives undertaken by the Rajasthan Government to improve health indicators in the state:

  1. Mukhyamantri Nishulk Dava Yojana: A scheme providing free essential medicines and diagnostics at government health facilities to improve accessibility for all.
  2. Bhamashah Swasthya Bima Yojana: A health insurance scheme offering cashless medical treatment to beneficiaries, ensuring financial protection against healthcare expenses.
  3. Janani Shishu Suraksha Yojana: Aimed at reducing maternal and neonatal mortality, this scheme provides free healthcare services to pregnant women and newborns.
  4. Mukhyamantri Jaivik Kheti Prashikshan Yojana: Promoting organic farming, the scheme provides training and assistance to farmers in adopting organic agricultural practices.
  5. Rajasthan Swasthya Bima Yojana: A health insurance scheme for families living below the poverty line, providing coverage for hospitalization and medical expenses.
  6. Arogya Rajasthan: A comprehensive health management information system (HMIS) aiming to improve health service delivery, monitoring, and reporting across the state.

Q8. What do you understand by Bharatmala Pariyojna of Government of India?

Ans: The Bharatmala Pariyojana is an ambitious infrastructure development program launched by the Government of India with the aim of enhancing road connectivity, improving logistics, and promoting economic growth across the country.

Bharatmala Pariyojana
Bharatmala Pariyojana

Objective: The primary objective of the Bharatmala Pariyojana is to improve road connectivity and reduce the time taken for the movement of goods and people. It is designed to address existing gaps in road infrastructure, stimulate economic development, and create job opportunities.

Key Features and Components: The project encompasses a comprehensive approach to road development and includes various components:

  1. Economic Corridors: The program focuses on constructing and upgrading key economic corridors that connect major commercial and industrial hubs. These corridors play a pivotal role in boosting trade and economic activities.
  2. Inter-Corridors: Inter-corridors are the connecting routes between economic corridors. They aim to provide better connectivity to areas that are not directly linked to major economic hubs.
  3. Feeder Routes: Feeder routes are local roads that connect villages, towns, and remote areas to the main corridors, promoting inclusivity and rural development.
  4. National Corridor Efficiency Improvement: This component aims to improve the efficiency and safety of national corridors by widening, strengthening, and modernizing existing highways.
  5. Border and International Connectivity Roads: Developing border and coastal roads enhances connectivity in border areas and improves trade relations with neighboring countries.
  6. Greenfield Expressways: New expressways are being planned to create high-speed road networks that facilitate efficient transportation and reduce travel time between major cities.

Expected Impact:

  1. Improved Connectivity: The Bharatmala project aims to reduce travel time between cities, enabling faster movement of goods and people.
  2. Enhanced Trade: The improved road infrastructure will lead to seamless transportation of goods, boosting trade and reducing transportation costs.
  3. Economic Growth: The project is expected to stimulate economic growth by creating new opportunities for trade, commerce, and industries along the economic corridors.
  4. Employment Generation: The construction and development of road infrastructure under this project generate employment opportunities in construction, maintenance, and related sectors.
  5. Rural Development: The focus on feeder routes and inter-corridors ensures better connectivity for rural areas, contributing to rural development.

Funding and Implementation: The Bharatmala Pariyojana is funded through a combination of sources, including budgetary allocations, borrowings from financial institutions, and public-private partnerships. The project is implemented by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) in collaboration with various state governments and agencies.

In conclusion, the Bharatmala Pariyojana is a significant initiative aimed at transforming India’s road infrastructure. By connecting economic hubs, improving logistics, and fostering economic growth, it seeks to propel India’s development journey and enhance the quality of life for its citizens.

Q9. What is Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) system for fertilizer subsidy in India ?

Ans: The Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) system for fertilizer subsidy in India is a government initiative aimed at improving the efficiency and transparency of delivering fertilizer subsidies to farmers. The traditional method of providing fertilizer subsidies involved supplying fertilizers at a subsidized rate to farmers through dealers. However, this system faced issues of diversion, leakages, and inefficient distribution.

The DBT system seeks to address these challenges by directly transferring the subsidy amount into the bank accounts of eligible farmers. Here’s how the DBT system for fertilizer subsidy works:

  1. Aadhaar Integration: Farmers are required to link their Aadhaar cards (unique identification numbers) to their bank accounts and to the government’s database.
  2. Fertilizer Purchase: When a farmer purchases fertilizers from an authorized dealer, the subsidy amount is calculated based on the type and quantity of fertilizer purchased.
  3. Subsidy Transfer: Instead of providing the subsidized fertilizers directly, the subsidy amount is transferred directly into the farmer’s bank account.
  4. Choice of Fertilizer: Farmers have the flexibility to choose the type and brand of fertilizers they need, without being restricted to specific government-approved fertilizers.
  5. Transparency and Accountability: The DBT system helps eliminate middlemen and reduces the possibility of diversion and black-marketing. Farmers receive the subsidy amount directly, ensuring greater transparency and accountability.
  6. Reduced Financial Burden: Farmers can purchase fertilizers at market prices and receive the subsidy amount, helping them manage their finances more effectively.
  7. Efficiency: The DBT system reduces the administrative and logistical challenges associated with procuring, distributing, and managing physical fertilizer stocks.

The DBT system for fertilizer subsidy aligns with the government’s broader digitalization and financial inclusion efforts. It aims to ensure that subsidies reach the intended beneficiaries while reducing wastage and leakages. By leveraging technology, the government seeks to make the subsidy distribution process more efficient, transparent, and farmer-friendly.

Q10. Explain automatic route and Government route by which India gets foreign direct investment.

Ans: In India, foreign direct investment (FDI) can be made through two routes: the automatic route and the government route (also known as the approval route). These routes dictate the procedures and requirements for foreign investors to invest in various sectors of the Indian economy.

Automatic Route: The automatic route allows foreign investors to invest in most sectors without the need for prior approval from the government. Under this route, foreign investors can directly invest in Indian companies or projects without seeking explicit approval. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) monitors and regulates FDI inflows through the automatic route.


  • No need for prior approval from the government.
  • The investor only needs to notify the RBI after making the investment.
  • Applicable to a wide range of sectors, subject to certain conditions and sectoral caps.
  • Faster and more streamlined process for attracting FDI.

Sectors Under the Automatic Route: Many sectors, such as manufacturing, services, technology, and infrastructure, fall under the automatic route. However, some sectors have specific conditions and limits on the percentage of foreign equity allowed.

Government Route (Approval Route): The government route requires foreign investors to obtain prior approval from the relevant government authorities before making an investment in certain sensitive sectors. The approval is granted based on the evaluation of the investment’s potential impact on national security, strategic interests, and other factors.


  • Prior approval from the government is required for investment in specific sectors.
  • The Foreign Investment Promotion Board (FIPB) used to handle approval applications, but it was abolished, and the process was streamlined under the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT).
  • Sensitive sectors like defense, telecommunications, broadcasting, print media, and more require government approval.

Sectors Under the Government Route: Sectors that are considered strategically important or sensitive to national security and those with sectoral caps above which foreign investment is restricted often fall under the government route.

Overall, the automatic route aims to encourage and simplify foreign investment by reducing bureaucratic hurdles, while the government route ensures that investments in sensitive sectors are subject to thorough scrutiny and regulatory oversight to safeguard national interests. The distinction between the two routes helps balance the goals of attracting foreign investment and ensuring regulatory control in key sectors.

Part – C (100 Words, 10 Marks)

Q11. Write a note on the problems and future requirements of infrastructure investment in India.

Ans: Problems and Future Requirements of Infrastructure Investment in India:


  1. Funding Gap: Insufficient public and private funding has led to an infrastructure funding gap, limiting the pace of development.
  2. Regulatory Hurdles: Cumbersome regulatory processes and policy inconsistencies hinder investment and delay project implementation.
  3. Land Acquisition: Lengthy land acquisition processes and conflicts over land ownership delay projects and increase costs.
  4. Project Delays: Bureaucratic bottlenecks, environmental clearances, and legal disputes result in project delays and cost overruns.
  5. Lack of Long-Term Financing: Inadequate availability of long-term financing options for infrastructure projects impacts their viability.
  6. Inadequate Maintenance: Poor maintenance and lack of focus on the operational phase lead to the degradation of existing infrastructure.
  7. Technological Adoption: Slow adoption of advanced technologies hampers project efficiency and cost-effectiveness.

Future Requirements:

  1. Investment Boost: Increasing public and private investment is essential to bridge the infrastructure funding gap.
  2. Policy Reforms: Streamlining regulations, reducing red tape, and ensuring policy consistency will attract investors and expedite project implementation.
  3. Land Reforms: Simplifying land acquisition processes and resolving ownership disputes will facilitate faster project execution.
  4. Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs): Expanding and improving PPP models will bring private expertise and funding into infrastructure development.
  5. Innovative Financing: Exploring innovative financing mechanisms, like infrastructure bonds and infrastructure investment trusts (InvITs), can mobilize funds.
  6. Digital Transformation: Embracing technology such as digital platforms, smart grids, and IoT can enhance project management and efficiency.
  7. Sustainability: Incorporating sustainable practices and green infrastructure will ensure long-term viability and environmental stewardship.
  8. Capacity Building: Developing skilled human resources and building institutional capacity in planning, execution, and maintenance is crucial.
  9. Public Awareness: Raising awareness about the importance of infrastructure development and its impact on economic growth can garner public support.
  10. Focus on Maintenance: Prioritizing regular maintenance and adopting asset management practices will prolong the lifespan of infrastructure.
  11. Sectoral Integration: Coordinating efforts across sectors like transport, energy, water, and telecommunications can optimize resource allocation.

In conclusion, addressing the challenges and meeting the future requirements of infrastructure investment in India demands a holistic approach involving policy reforms, innovative financing, technological advancement, and effective governance. A robust and well-developed infrastructure framework is crucial for India’s sustained economic growth, improved living standards, and global competitiveness.

Q12. Discuss the determinants of Ease of Doing Business prescribed by World Bank. Which factors have contributed to an improvement in India’s rank in ease of doing business?

Ans: The World Bank’s “Ease of Doing Business” index assesses the business regulatory environment in countries based on various indicators. These indicators collectively reflect the ease with which businesses can operate, start, and flourish.

Key Determinants:

  1. Starting a Business: Measures the procedures, time, cost, and minimum capital required to start a business.
  2. Dealing with Construction Permits: Evaluates the procedures, time, and cost required to obtain construction permits and licenses.
  3. Getting Electricity: Assesses the time, cost, and procedures needed to connect to the electrical grid and access reliable electricity.
  4. Registering Property: Measures the procedures, time, and cost to transfer property ownership and register real estate.
  5. Getting Credit: Evaluates the strength of credit reporting systems and collateral and bankruptcy laws.
  6. Protecting Minority Investors: Assesses the protection of minority shareholders’ rights in corporate governance.
  7. Paying Taxes: Measures the total tax rate, time, and procedures required for businesses to comply with tax regulations.
  8. Trading Across Borders: Evaluates the time and cost to import and export goods, as well as the efficiency of customs procedures.
  9. Enforcing Contracts: Measures the time and cost required to resolve a commercial dispute through the judicial system.
  10. Resolving Insolvency: Assesses the time, cost, and outcome of insolvency proceedings.

Factors Contributing to India’s Improvement:

India has made significant efforts to improve its ease of doing business ranking in recent years. Several factors have contributed to this improvement:

  1. Structural Reforms: Policy reforms such as the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (GST) have simplified the tax structure and reduced tax-related complexities for businesses.
  2. Easier Business Start-up: Initiatives like the digitization of processes, online registration, and single-window clearance have streamlined the process of starting a business.
  3. Property Registration Reforms: Digitalization of land records and simplification of property registration processes have made it easier to register property.
  4. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code: The introduction of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code has provided a more efficient framework for resolving insolvency cases.
  5. Trade Facilitation: Implementing digital platforms and streamlining customs procedures have reduced the time and cost of trading across borders.
  6. Labor Reforms: Introduction of labor reforms, such as the new labor codes, aims to simplify labor regulations and improve the ease of doing business.
  7. Online Portals and Dashboards: Digital platforms for various regulatory processes have improved transparency, reduced bureaucratic delays, and increased accountability.
  8. Stakeholder Engagement: Active engagement with stakeholders, including businesses and industry associations, has led to a better understanding of their concerns and needs.

Q13. Write a brief note on Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project”.

Ans: The Eastern Rajasthan Canal Project (ERCP) is a significant irrigation initiative aimed at harnessing water resources from the Chambal and its tributaries to provide water for agricultural and drinking purposes in eastern Rajasthan. The project was envisaged to address the water scarcity issues in the arid region and enhance agricultural productivity.

The ERCP involves the construction of canals, dams, and reservoirs to divert and store water for irrigation and domestic use. The project’s objective is to improve the livelihoods of farmers, increase agricultural output, and promote overall socio-economic development in the region. However, the project has faced challenges related to land acquisition, environmental concerns, and funding constraints, which have affected its progress.

The ERCP highlights the importance of water management in water-scarce regions and the complexities involved in implementing large-scale irrigation projects while addressing various stakeholders’ needs and concerns.

Unit: III (20 Marks)

Part A (15 words, 2 Marks)

Q1. What is De-Sanskritization ?

Ans: De-Sanskritization is a concept to describe a process through which communities or individuals intentionally distance themselves from certain cultural or religious practices.

Q2. What is ‘Simantonnayan Sanskar? 

Ans: ‘Simantonnayan Sanskar’ is a significant ritual in Hinduism that is performed during pregnancy. It is also known as the ‘Godh Bharai’ ceremony or the ‘Baby Shower’ ceremony in some regions. The ritual is intended to celebrate and bless the expectant mother as she prepares to give birth to a child.

Q3. Caste is an endogamous group. How?

Ans: Caste is characterized by endogamy, where individuals are required to marry within their own caste. This practice maintains caste purity and preserves social hierarchies, limiting social mobility and reinforcing distinct cultural and social identities within the caste system.

Q4. What is social thought?

Ans: Social thought refers to the collective ideas, theories, and perspectives developed by individuals and groups to understand, critique, and shape societal structures, norms, and behaviors. It encompasses philosophies, ideologies, and analyses that contribute to discussions about social issues, change, and the dynamics of human interaction.

Q5. What is “Sagari Custom Prohibition Act?

Ans: This legislation liberated bonded laborers, emancipating them from both servitude and debt. It criminalized the practice of slavery, ensuring legal consequences for its perpetrators.

Bonded Labour
Bonded Labour

Part: B (50 Words, 5 Marks)

Q6. What are the changes brought by secularization in religion ?

Ans: Secularization refers to the process through which the influence of religion on various aspects of society declines, and religious institutions lose their prominence in shaping public and private life. Changes brought by secularization in religion:

  1. Individualism: People prioritize personal beliefs over traditional religious doctrines, leading to diverse interpretations and reduced adherence to religious authorities.
  2. Decline in Religious Institutions: Religious institutions lose their central role in social, political, and cultural life as secular values gain prominence.
  3. Pluralism: Different belief systems coexist, fostering religious diversity and encouraging tolerance for various faiths.
  4. Shift in Moral Frameworks: Secular societies rely more on ethical systems beyond religious dogma, embracing humanistic values and principles.
  5. Rise of Rationality: Rational and scientific thinking challenge traditional religious explanations, impacting religious practices and beliefs.
  6. Reduction in Rituals: Ritualistic practices and religious ceremonies decline in significance, affecting religious identity and community cohesion.
  7. Separation of Church and State: Political decisions become less influenced by religious authorities, promoting democratic governance and individual rights.
  8. Change in Religious Authority: Religious leaders may lose influence, and people turn to other sources for guidance, like philosophy or psychology.
  9. Focus on Materialism: As the spiritual focus wanes, societies emphasize material and economic pursuits, altering personal priorities.
  10. Reinterpretation of Faith: Believers reinterpret religious texts and beliefs in light of contemporary knowledge and values.
  11. Emphasis on Humanism: Secularization promotes human-centered ethics and emphasizes the betterment of human lives on Earth.
  12. New Social Norms: Secular societies adopt liberal values and norms, such as gender equality and LGBTQ+ rights, irrespective of religious doctrines.
  13. Change in Family Dynamics: Secularization can lead to shifts in family structures, marriage norms, and attitudes toward parenting and education.
  14. Diminished Religious Influence in Education: Religious teachings have a reduced role in educational institutions as secular knowledge gains prominence.
  15. Globalization’s Impact: The exchange of cultures and ideas through globalization influences religious beliefs and practices.

Overall, secularization transforms the role of religion in society, impacting values, institutions, and individual perspectives as traditional religious influences give way to secular values and worldviews.

Q7. What are the Constitutional efforts to solve the problems of tribes in Rajasthan?

Ans: Constitutional efforts to address the issues of tribes (Scheduled Tribes or STs) in Rajasthan are designed to safeguard their rights, promote their welfare, and ensure their equitable development. Key provisions and efforts include:

  1. Scheduled Tribes Recognition: The Constitution of India recognizes specific tribes as Scheduled Tribes, providing them with special protections and benefits.
  2. Article 46: The Directive Principles of State Policy under Article 46 promote the educational and economic interests of Scheduled Tribes, aiming to prevent their social and economic exploitation.
  3. Article 244(1): This article empowers the President to declare certain areas with tribal populations as Scheduled Areas and to enact laws to ensure their governance and development.
  4. Article 275(1): It provides for grants-in-aid to the states with Scheduled Tribes to promote their welfare and economic development.
  5. Fifth Schedule: This Schedule of the Constitution pertains to the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes. It outlines the powers and responsibilities of tribal advisory councils and the protection of their customs, land rights, and resources.
  6. Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act (PESA): This law ensures self-governance and autonomy of tribal communities in areas declared as Scheduled Areas.
  7. Forest Rights Act (2006): Also known as the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, this legislation recognizes the rights of forest-dwelling communities, including tribes, over forest land and resources.
  8. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA): The act guarantees at least 100 days of wage employment to every rural household and focuses on providing employment opportunities in Scheduled Areas.
  9. Tribal Sub-Plan (TSP): The concept of Tribal Sub-Plan ensures that a certain proportion of the funds allocated to states is spent on the development of Scheduled Tribes.
  10. Special Central Assistance (SCA) to Tribal Sub-Plan: This financial assistance from the central government supports projects and programs for the socio-economic development of Scheduled Tribes.
  11. Welfare Schemes: Various welfare schemes like scholarships, housing, healthcare, and education programs are implemented for the upliftment of tribal communities.
  12. Reservation: Scheduled Tribes are granted reservation in educational institutions, government jobs, and legislative bodies to ensure their representation and participation in decision-making processes.

These constitutional provisions and efforts emphasize the protection of tribal rights, their socio-economic development, and the preservation of their distinct cultural identities. These measures aim to address historical injustices, promote equality, and ensure the overall well-being of tribal communities in Rajasthan and across India.

UNIT: III (Section B) (20 Marks)

Part: A (15 Words, 2 Marks)

Q1. What is the Principle of Unity of Direction?

Ans: The Principle of Unity of Direction in management states that activities with a common goal should be guided by a single coordinated plan under centralized leadership.

Q2. What do you mean by informal organisation?

Ans: An informal organization focuses on building social relationships and networks among individuals within a formal organization, often outside the official hierarchy. It encompasses the social interactions, friendships, alliances, and communication networks that emerge naturally among employees.

Q3. Explain sustainable marketing in brief.

Ans: Sustainable marketing involves promoting products or services while considering environmental, social, and ethical impacts to ensure long-term ecological and societal well-being.

Q4. What is Commercial Paper” as an instrument for short term finance?

Ans: Commercial Paper is a short-term unsecured financial instrument issued by corporations to raise funds for immediate operational needs.

Q5. What do you understand by Semantic Barriers’ in communication?

Ans: Semantic barriers refer to misunderstandings caused by differing interpretations of words, symbols, or language due to cultural, contextual, or linguistic factors.

Part B (50 Words, 5 Marks)

Q6. Explain the two factor theory of motivation.

Ans: The Two-Factor Theory of Motivation, developed by Frederick Herzberg, posits that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are driven by distinct sets of factors. Motivator factors, such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, and advancement, are intrinsic to the job and lead to positive feelings and motivation. They are associated with personal growth and fulfillment. On the other hand, hygiene factors, like salary, working conditions, job security, and company policies, are extrinsic and address basic needs. They prevent dissatisfaction but do not necessarily boost motivation. This theory highlights the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors in influencing employee attitudes and behaviors.


Q7. Explain the concept of wealth maximisation.

Ans: Wealth maximization is a financial management concept that suggests the primary objective of a business or investment is to increase the overall wealth or value of its shareholders or owners. This principle posits that decisions made by a company should be aimed at maximizing the net present value (NPV) of cash flows generated by its activities.


In the context of businesses, wealth maximization entails making strategic choices that enhance the long-term value of the organization. This can involve pursuing projects that generate higher returns, optimizing capital structure, managing risk, and focusing on efficient resource allocation.

Wealth maximization differs from profit maximization, which focuses solely on short-term profits. Wealth maximization takes into account the time value of money, risk considerations, and the sustainable growth of the company.

In essence, wealth maximization seeks to create sustainable value for shareholders over the long run by making decisions that lead to the maximization of the company’s intrinsic worth.

Unit: III

Section C (20 Marks)

Part: A ( 15 Words, 2 Marks)

Q1. Define Efficiency Audit.

Ans: Efficiency audit evaluates processes, resources, and operations to improve productivity, minimize waste, and optimize resource utilization in organizations.

Q2. What is Ratio Analysis with reference to Analysis of Financial Statements?

Ans: Ratio analysis involves evaluating relationships between financial data in statements to assess a company’s performance, liquidity, solvency, and profitability.

Q3. What do you understand by ‘Budgeting?

Ans: Budgeting is the process of planning and allocating financial resources for specific activities, projects, or periods to achieve organizational goals.

Q4. What is Social Audit? 

Ans: Budgeting is the process of planning and allocating financial resources for specific activities, projects, or periods to achieve organizational goals.

Q5. What is Funds Flow Analysis Technique?

Ans: Funds Flow Analysis tracks fund movement to analyze sources and uses, providing insights into financial health, liquidity, and operations.


Part: B (50 Words, 5 Marks)

Q6. Write a note on Zero base budgeting.

Ans: Zero-Based Budgeting (ZBB) is a budgeting approach that requires each expense to be justified from scratch for each budgeting cycle. Unlike traditional budgeting methods that rely on incremental adjustments, ZBB assumes that no expenses are pre-approved, and all activities and costs must be justified based on their necessity and contribution to organizational goals.

Key features of Zero-Based Budgeting include:

  1. Zero Base: ZBB starts from a “zero base” where all expenses begin at zero and need to be justified for inclusion in the budget.
  2. Cost-Benefit Analysis: Each activity and expenditure is evaluated based on its cost and potential benefits. This promotes efficiency and cost-consciousness.
  3. Focus on Priorities: ZBB encourages organizations to prioritize activities and allocate resources to those that align with strategic goals.
  4. Resource Allocation: Resources are allocated based on the needs and merits of individual activities, rather than historical allocations.
  5. Rethinking Assumptions: ZBB challenges assumptions and encourages managers to consider alternatives and innovative solutions.
  6. Incremental vs. Zero Base: In incremental budgeting, expenses are adjusted based on previous budgets, while ZBB starts from scratch.
  7. Budget Justification: ZBB requires detailed documentation of why each expense is necessary and how it contributes to objectives.
  8. Bottom-Up Approach: Employees at all levels are involved in the budgeting process, contributing to a more comprehensive view.
  9. Flexibility: ZBB enables organizations to adapt to changing circumstances and allocate resources optimally.
  10. Resource Optimization: ZBB can lead to more efficient resource allocation by eliminating redundant or low-value activities.

ZBB is beneficial for organizations seeking to control costs, enhance resource allocation, and align spending with strategic priorities. However, implementing ZBB can be resource-intensive due to the detailed analysis required for each budget item. It is often employed in public-sector organizations, non-profits, and companies looking to optimize their budgeting processes.

Q7. What is Operating Cycle Concept of Working Capital?

Ans: The Operating Cycle Concept of Working Capital refers to the time it takes for a company to convert its raw materials into finished goods, sell those goods, and ultimately receive cash from customers. It represents the entire cycle of operations from procurement to cash collection and helps determine the duration for which funds are tied up in the production and sales process.

The key components of the operating cycle are:

  1. Raw Material Conversion: The time taken to convert raw materials into finished goods through production or manufacturing processes.
  2. Finished Goods Conversion: The time it takes for finished goods to be sold to customers, which includes the sales process and delivery.
  3. Accounts Receivable Collection: The time between the sale of goods and the collection of cash from customers. This is influenced by credit terms.

The formula to calculate the operating cycle is: Operating Cycle = Average Inventory Holding Period + Average Receivables Collection Period

Understanding the operating cycle is crucial for managing working capital effectively. A shorter operating cycle indicates faster turnover of resources, leading to improved liquidity and reduced need for financing. Conversely, a longer operating cycle ties up funds in various stages of the production and sales process, impacting liquidity and capital requirements.

Efficient management of the operating cycle involves optimizing inventory levels, streamlining production processes, managing accounts receivable, and negotiating favorable credit terms with suppliers and customers. This helps in minimizing the time funds are tied up in the operating cycle, contributing to better working capital management.