Licchavi Lyceum


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What was Tinkathia system?

The Tin Kathia system was a significant agrarian system that existed in Bihar during the British colonial period. This system had a profound impact on the socio-economic structure of the region and was a source of exploitation of the local farmers by the British authorities and intermediaries. Let us see What was Tinkathia system in detail?

What was Tinkathia system

  1. Origin: The Tin Kathia system emerged during the British colonial rule in the 19th century. It was primarily prevalent in the Champaran region of North Bihar.
  2. Land Revenue System: The Tin Kathia system was a land revenue collection system imposed by the British authorities. Under this system, farmers were required to give three parts (Tin Kathia) of their produce to the government as land revenue. These three parts consisted of:
    • One-third of the produce: This portion was collected as land revenue by the British government.
    • One-third of the produce: This part was retained by the local landlords or intermediaries.
    • One-third of the produce: The remaining one-third was left for the actual cultivator/farmer.
  3. Exploitative Nature: The Tin Kathia system was highly exploitative. The share of the produce left for the farmer was often insufficient to meet their basic needs, leading to poverty and debt. Furthermore, the intermediaries who collected one-third of the produce would often engage in unfair practices and demand additional payments from the farmers.
  4. Impact on Farmers: The system placed a heavy burden on the farmers, who were forced to toil hard in the fields but received only a small portion of the produce. Many farmers lived in abject poverty and were unable to improve their economic condition.
  5. Champaran Satyagraha (1917): The Tin Kathia system gained national attention during the Champaran Satyagraha of 1917, which was led by Mahatma Gandhi. He visited Champaran and supported the indigo farmers who were suffering under this exploitative system. The Satyagraha aimed to address the issues of the Tin Kathia system and the unjust treatment of the indigo cultivators.
  6. Reforms and Abolition: As a result of the Champaran Satyagraha and subsequent protests, the Tin Kathia system was gradually reformed and eventually abolished. The British government introduced new land revenue policies and regulations, making land revenue more equitable and reducing the burden on farmers.

The Tin Kathia system serves as a historical example of the exploitative land revenue systems that prevailed under British colonial rule in various parts of India. The struggles and movements against such systems, like the Champaran Satyagraha, played a crucial role in the broader Indian freedom movement and the eventual achievement of independence in 1947.

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