Licchavi Lyceum

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Licchavi Lyceum

Climate of Assam

The climate of Assam is subtropical according to the Koeppen climate classification system. The region experiences a distinct wet and dry season, influenced by its proximity to the Bay of Bengal, the Brahmaputra River, and surrounding mountain ranges.

Climate of Assam

  1. Monsoon Season (June to September):
    • Assam’s climate is predominantly characterized by the monsoon season, which occurs from June to September.
    • During this period, the southwest monsoon brings copious amounts of rainfall to the state, crucial for its agriculture and overall ecosystem.
    • Assam receives one of the highest amounts of rainfall in India, with an average annual precipitation ranging from 2,500 to 3,000 millimeters (98 to 118 inches).
    • Continuous rain during the monsoon can lead to flooding in certain areas, especially along the banks of the Brahmaputra River.
  2. Dry Season (October to May):
    • The dry season prevails from October to May, with relatively lower rainfall and drier conditions compared to the monsoon months.
    • Winters (November to February) are generally cool and comfortable, with temperatures ranging from 10°C to 25°C (50°F to 77°F).
    • Pre-monsoon months from March to May are relatively warmer, with temperatures rising to around 30°C (86°F) or higher during the day.
    • The dry season is conducive to agricultural activities and outdoor tourism, given the pleasant weather.

Assam’s subtropical climate is influenced by various geographical factors:

  1. Brahmaputra River: The presence of the Brahmaputra River significantly shapes the climate of Assam. The river valley acts as a channel for the monsoon winds, resulting in heavy rainfall in the region.
  2. Himalayas and Eastern Himalayas: The Himalayas and the Eastern Himalayas to the north and northeast of Assam impact the climate. The mountains act as barriers to cold northern winds during winter, keeping temperatures relatively mild.
  3. Bay of Bengal: The Bay of Bengal to the south of Assam also contributes to the region’s climate by influencing the monsoon winds and the onset of the southwest monsoon.

Assam’s subtropical climate fosters a rich biodiversity and abundant vegetation. The state’s fertile plains and favorable weather support a variety of crops, with tea being a significant agricultural product. However, the region’s susceptibility to monsoon floods can pose challenges for agriculture and infrastructure development.

Koppen Cliffication of Assam

According to the Köppen climate classification, Assam’s climate can be categorized as a combination of two main climate types: Tropical Monsoon Climate (Am) and Humid Subtropical Climate (Cwa).

  1. Tropical Monsoon Climate (Am):
    • This climate type is prevalent in most parts of Assam, including cities like Guwahati and Jorhat.
    • The Am climate is characterized by high temperatures throughout the year and distinct wet and dry seasons.
    • Summers (April to June) are hot and humid, with temperatures ranging from 25°C to 35°C (77°F to 95°F).
    • The monsoon season (June to September) brings heavy rainfall to the region, which is vital for the state’s lush vegetation and agriculture.
    • Winters (November to February) are relatively mild, with temperatures ranging from 10°C to 25°C (50°F to 77°F).
  2. Humid Subtropical Climate (Cwa):
    • The Cwa climate is found in certain areas of Assam, particularly in the southern and southeastern parts of the state.
    • This climate type is characterized by hot and humid summers and milder winters with moderate rainfall.
    • Summers (April to June) are hot and humid, with temperatures ranging from 25°C to 35°C (77°F to 95°F).
    • Winters (November to February) are relatively milder, with temperatures ranging from 15°C to 25°C (59°F to 77°F).

The combination of these two climate types makes Assam’s weather quite diverse. The state receives abundant rainfall during the monsoon season, which is crucial for agriculture and the replenishment of water bodies. The lush green landscapes, tea gardens, and diverse flora and fauna are a direct result of the region’s favorable climate conditions.

It’s important to note that the Koppen climate classification is a widely used system to categorize climate types based on temperature and precipitation patterns. However, the climate of a specific location can be influenced by various other factors, such as altitude, proximity to water bodies, and local topography. As a result, certain microclimates and regional variations may exist within the broader climate classifications.

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