NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Resource and Development
1. Multiple choice questions:
(i) Which one of the following types of resources is iron ore?
Answer: d. Non-renewable
Explanation: Iron ore is classified as a non-renewable resource. Non-renewable resources are those that cannot be easily replaced or regenerated within a short period of time. Iron ore is a finite natural resource that is extracted from the earth and once it is depleted, it cannot be quickly replenished. As a result, careful management and sustainable use of iron ore reserves are necessary to ensure their availability for future generations.
(ii) Under which of the following types of resource can tidal energy be put?
Answer: (a) Replenishable
Explanation: Tidal energy is a form of renewable energy that is generated by the gravitational forces of the moon and the sun acting on the Earth’s oceans. Tidal energy sources are continuously replenished by the natural movement of tides, making them replenishable resources.
(iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab?
(a) Intensive cultivation
(c) Over irrigation
Answer: (c) Over irrigation
Explanation: In Punjab, the main cause of land degradation is over irrigation. Excessive and improper irrigation practices can lead to waterlogging and salinization of the soil, which degrade its fertility and overall health.
(iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practiced?
(b) Plains of Uttar Pradesh
Answer: (c) Haryana
Explanation: Terrace cultivation is commonly practiced in the state of Haryana. Terrace cultivation involves carving flat steps into steep hillsides to create planting areas. This method helps prevent soil erosion on hilly terrain.
(v) In which of the following states is black soil found?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
Answer: (b) Gujarat
Explanation: Black soil, also known as Regur soil, is found in the state of Gujarat. It is one of the most fertile types of soil and is known for its water-retaining properties and suitability for agriculture.
Q.2: Answer the following questions in about 30 words:
(i) Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it.
Answer: Three states with black soil are Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh. Cotton is the main crop grown in these regions due to the soil’s water-retention capacity and fertility.
(ii) What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the Eastern Coast? Give three main features of this type of soil.
Answer: Alluvial soil is found in the river deltas of the Eastern Coast. It is fertile, well-drained, and suitable for various crops. These soils are composed of silt, clay, and sand deposited by rivers, making them highly productive.
(iii) What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas?
Answer: To control soil erosion in hilly areas, measures like contour plowing, terracing, afforestation, and building check dams can be implemented. Planting cover crops and practicing agroforestry also help prevent erosion by stabilizing the soil.
(iv) What are biotic and abiotic resources? Give some examples.
Answer: Biotic resources are living or organic components of the environment, such as plants, animals, and forests. Abiotic resources are non-living components like minerals, air, water, and sunlight. Examples of biotic resources include timber and fish, while abiotic resources include minerals like iron and natural gases like oxygen.
3. Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(i) Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much since 1960-61?
Ans: In India, the land use pattern is characterized by a diverse range of activities such as agriculture, forestry, urbanization, industrialization, and more. However, the proportion of land dedicated to each activity has shifted over the years due to changing economic, social, and environmental factors. As of my last update in September 2021, the primary land use categories in India are agricultural land, forested land, non-agricultural uses, and wasteland.
Despite efforts to promote afforestation and conservation, the expansion of forested land in India has been limited since 1960-61 due to several reasons:
- Population Pressure: India’s growing population has led to increased demand for agricultural land, resulting in deforestation to make way for farming and urbanization.
- Agricultural Expansion: The need to feed a burgeoning population has driven the expansion of agricultural land, often at the expense of forests.
- Infrastructure Development: The construction of roads, highways, and other infrastructure projects has contributed to deforestation.
- Industrialization: Industrial growth has led to the establishment of factories and urban centers, encroaching upon forested areas.
- Illegal Logging: Unregulated logging and illegal timber trade have further reduced forest cover.
- Livestock Grazing: Overgrazing by livestock, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, has degraded forests and grasslands.
- Development Projects: Large-scale development projects such as dams and mining have displaced forests and indigenous communities.
Efforts have been made to address these challenges through afforestation programs, conservation initiatives, and sustainable forest management. However, the balance between developmental needs and environmental preservation remains a complex issue.
(ii) How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources?
Ans: Technical and economic development has led to increased resource consumption in several ways:
- Increased Production: Technological advancements have boosted production capacities across sectors, leading to higher demand for raw materials such as minerals, metals, and fossil fuels.
- Urbanization and Infrastructure: Economic growth often accompanies urbanization and infrastructure development, requiring more land, energy, and materials.
- Transportation and Travel: Improved transportation systems have facilitated the movement of goods and people, increasing energy consumption and emissions.
- Consumerism: Economic development has led to higher incomes and consumer spending, driving demand for manufactured goods, electronics, and other products, all of which require resources for production.
- Energy Demand: Technological progress has led to increased energy consumption, including fossil fuels and electricity.
- Agricultural Intensification: Modern agriculture relies on mechanization, irrigation, and fertilizers, leading to higher water and nutrient consumption.
- Waste Generation: Economic development generates more waste, including electronic waste and plastics, straining waste management systems.
Efforts to mitigate resource consumption impacts include sustainable practices, resource-efficient technologies, renewable energy adoption, waste reduction strategies, and circular economy principles. Balancing development with resource conservation and environmental sustainability is a global challenge requiring coordinated efforts from governments, industries, and communities. Please note that developments may have occurred since September 2021.
Thanks for reading article on NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 1 Resource and Development.